Brahma Khandam Chapter 10
Comparison between Casts and the relations
Sauti said, “Bhrgu, Cyayana and Sukra happen to be the best of the intellectuals,. Kratu’s wife named Kriya gave birth to the sages known as Balakhilyas.
О Saunaka, Brhaspati the best of the sages was bom of Angira, besides Utathya and Sambara.
sakti was bom to Vasistha. Parasara was the son of sakti and Paras’ara’s son was Krsna Dvaipayana Vyasa, who was considered to be the partial incarnation of Visnu.
The great intellect Suka was born to Vyasa who is believed to be the arhsa of Siva. Pulastya had a son named Visvasrava and he had a son named Kubera.
Saunaka said, “It is surprising that the words of the people well-versed in the Puranas are difficult to be understood because first now you have stated that Kubera was born out of lord Krs na, them how have spoken to me the other source of the birth of Kubera. (How could Kubera be the son of Visvasrava).
Sauti said, “In the ancient times all the Dikpalas were born of the lord but then with the curse of the Brahma were born as the sons of Visvasrava.
Once Utathya demanded a crores of gold coins form Kubera to pay gurudaksina to his teacher. Kubera is turn behaved with him quite harshly. At this Utathya reduced Kubera to ashes as a result of which Kubera was to be reborn.
Thus Kubera was bom again of Vis’vas’rava and the brother of Ravana, Kumbhakama and Vibhisana who was quite a religious one.
Agastya was the son of Pulaha Vatsya, Sandilya was bom of Ruci and Savarni was born of the great sage Gautama
Kasyapa was bom to Kasyapa and Bhardvaja was the son of Brhaspati. Vatsya himself was born of the sage Pulaha. The great sage Sandilya was born of Ruci.
Five gotras were associated with these five families. О Saunaka, other castes of Brahmanas were born out of the mouth of Brahma. They were all spread over to different countries and are devoid of the gotras.
Similarly the moon, the sun and the Ksatriyas born of Manu are the best. The Ksatriyas of other castes were bom out of the anns of Brahma. The Vaisays were bom out of his eyes and the Sudras emerged out of his feet. With the contact of the Siidra women with the men of other castes varnas sukaras were bom. О best of the Brahmanas, the cowherds, barbers, sweet meat sellers, the weavers, the black smiths, the gold smiths and the traders are known as sat-Sudras. With the union of Vais’ya with Siidra a female of double caste is born and is called Ambastha.
Vis’vakanna implanted the seed in the knowledge (Vidya) and nine sons were born of her, who were known as the artisans like, the gardener, Carpenter, maker of Sarhkha, weaver, potter and blacksmith. All these six types of artisans are known to be the best of all.
The carpenter, sculptor and the gold-smith are the ones who had fallen on earth due to the curse of Brahma and are known as Vamasankaras besides being unsuitable to perfonn the yajfias.
Saunaka said, “How could Vis’vakarma implant his see in a Siidra woman? How were they fallen? Why did Brahma pronounce a curse on them. О best of these possessing the knowledge of the Puranas, you please tell us.
Sauti said, “Once an Apsara named GhrtacI, infested with passion and clad in attractive garments was proceeding to the abode of Kamadeva. Viswakarma spotted her on the way near Psskara.
On seeing her, the mind of Vis’vakarma was filled with pleasure. Infested with passion he sought to make love with her. At that point of time she was adorned with all the ornaments. All her limbs looked tender. She, having an eternal youthfulness looked like a damsel of sixteen years. She had broad hips. She could attract even the recluses. She stood unstable because of casting a sharp side glance and looked quite passionate, infested with love. Her waist was well developed. Her costumes were being flown by the wind. Both her breasts were well developed, raised and hard. She wore a smile on her face and the lustre of her body put even to moon to shame. Her beautiful lips resembled the ripe bimba fruits and were red in colour. Her forehead was plastered with coryllium mixed with kasturl. The precious gem-studded kundalas were hanging and shining over her cheeks. Vis’vakarma, the master of Love sport, spoke to her the words which were sweet like the nectar.
Visvakarma said, “O Beautiful one and dearer than my life, where are you going after stealing away my life out of my body. О Beautiful, wait for a while.
I have been roaming about the world over in search of you. Failing to find you I had decided to enter the fire to end my life.
I have heard from the mouth of Rambha that you are proceeding to the abode of Kamadeva. That is why I have arrived here to intercept you.
О Beautiful one, you enjoy my company in the orchard located over the bank of the river Sarasvatl, who fragrant breeze is always blowing. You cohabit with a beautiful person like me because a clever man would always like to make love with a clever lady.
You are the most beautiful lady in the world and your youthfulness is eternal. You are attractive having tender limbs and the most beautiful of all the beautiful women on earth.
With the blessing of Siva I have already won over the daughter of the lord of death. I have also been granted a boon Kubera, when I went to his abode. Similarly Varuna has bestowed me with the gift of the garland of gems, female ornaments from the wind-god, the sanctified garments from the god of fire and the love sports from Kamadeva, which is the mode of pleasure for all the ladies. I have learnt the art of decoration from the moon.
I had resolved to hand over the garland of gems and all the ornaments. After keeping them safely in my abode, I had come out in search of you. I shall hand them all over to you after enjoying your company”.
Listening to the words of the passionate Visvakarma, GhrtacI smilingly spoke the appropriate words
GhrtacI said, “O Passionate one, I accept all whatever have you spoken to me. But presently, I would like to speak to you some meaningful words.
Currently I am moving to Kamadeva’s abode, so well dressed. The day on which I use a particular dress for some one, that day is meant for that particular person. Today therefore I am the wife of Kamadeva and the wife of your teacher because you have just now told me that Kamadeva had been your teacher.
The one who imparts the knowledge and the one who imparts the knowledge in mantras enjoys a position a lakh times greater than the father a thousand times greater than the mother. There is none else comparable to the teacher.
О Intelligent one, I have heard from the Vedas that the teacher and the wife of the teacher are hundred times more respectable as a mother is hundred times more respectable than the father.
The quantity of sins one earns by cohabiting with one’s own mother is a lakh times more than cohabiting with the wife of the teacher.
A person who talks to some one addressing her as a mother, in reality she becomes like his mother because Dharma is witness for all the noble people.
Thus the one who cohabits with her, has to suffer horrible pains in the terrific hell till the sun and the moon shine on earth.
One earns four times more sin for cohabiting with his mother and by so doing with the wife of a teacher one earns a lakh of time more sins.
and he suffers in the horrible hell till the life of Brahma. No remedy has been prescribed in the Vedas for such sins and is rather unheard of.
The sinners are thrown in the kumbhipaka hell, which moves like the wheel of the potters, sharp like sword, filled with flesh, urine refuse filled with the insects while bite like the tridents, burning like the fire flames and is boiling hot. .
The sin that accrues to a person for enjoying the company of the wife of the teacher the same quantity of sin is earned by the wife of the teacher as well in case she enjoys the company of others in a passionate manner..
Today, I happen to be the beloved of Kamadeva. That is why I am going to him. I shall come for your sake in that is why I am going to him. I shall come for your sake in a more attractive costume on some other day”..
On hearing the words of GhrtacI, Visvakarma was enraged and pronounced a curse on her saying that she would be bom on earth in the house of a Sudra..
GhrtacI too on hearing the curse of Visvakarma, also pronounced a terrific curse on him, “you fall from heaven and be bom on earth.
Thus cursing Visvakarma, GhrtacI reached the abode of Vis’vakarma. After enjoying the love sport with Kamadeva, the narrated the details of what had happened to her..
О Saunaka! After informing Kamadeva, GhrtacI took birth in the house of a cowherd named Madana, in the town of Prayaga. Even after her birth on earth, she could remember the happenings of her earlier birth. She therefore instead of entering into the marriage, resorted to sever tapas.
GhrtacI having the complexion of the heated gold performed tapas over the bank of the Gangs for a hundred years.
Thereafter GhrtacI after giving birth to a hundred sons born out of the semen of Vis’vakarma retreated to heaven.
Saunaka said, “O sage, how did she bear the seed of Visvakarma? Where were the hundred sons bom? For how long did she remain on earth.
Sauti said, “Visvakarma was grieved at the curse of GhrtacI and with a painful heart, he want to Brahma to whom he narrated the details of what had happened. Thereafter with the permission of Brahma, he was bom on earth in the Brahmana family. Even after having been bom in a Brahmana family, he worked as an artisan, as a result of which he worked variously in the royal palaces as well as the houses of other people.
He always performed the job of an artisan and the quality of his artistic skill was indeed astonishing and pleasant.
Once he after attending his job at the royal palaces, went to the bank of the Ganga for having a bath. There he spotted a beautifully female recluse engaged in tapas. Visvakarma, who was well aware of the happenings of his past birth recognised her.
On seeing her, he was suddenly infested with passion; He, however, became calm and in a sweet tone, he spoke to the female ascetic
The Brahmana, said, “O GhrtacI, possessing the beautiful body, you are here at present, О Beautiful one having the things like the trunk of the banana tree, I am Visvakarma. Can you recognise me?
О Beautiful one, I shall relieve you of the curse. You cohabit with me. Because of you I have been burning from within.
On hearing the words of the Brahmana, GhrtacI, took to new form and in a calm mood, spoke to him quite appropriately this.
The cowherdesses said, “on that day, I was the wife of Kamadeva and now a recluse. Thus how can I cohabit with you in Bharata over the bank of the Ganga.
Because this Bharata, О Vis’vakarma is a sacred place and what ever good and evil deeds are performed here, one has to face their result.
The great ascetics prefer to be bom on earth and they perform infested with the illusion of lord Visnu.
Because on whom so ever, the illusion of Visnu gets pleased, lord Krsna and showers his devotion and the desired mantra.
The god who having been hom in Bharata, involves himself in worldly pleasures and passions are apparently overpowered by the illusion of Visnu.
I have been reminded of all the happenings of my past birth. I am the divine apsara named GhrtacI of the earlier birth and an currently the daughter of a cowherd
I am performing tapas over the sacred bank of the Ganga for the achieving of the salvation. Therefore О Passionate one, you better remain calm at the moment, because this is not the place for making love sport.
The sins which are performed elsewhere are washed away by having a bath in the water of the Ganga but the sin perfonned over the bank of the Ganga gets multiplied a lakh of times in an instant.
The same sin can vanish with the performing of the tapas of Narayana. The sin committed intentionally or unintentionally also disappears with the tapas.
Visvakarma, of the form of a wind, then proceeded on to the Malayacala mountain with Ghrtacl.
Reaching the Malaya mountain, a beautiful bed of flowers was arranged. The fragrant coal was blowing. In the lonely forest, both of them enjoyed the love sport, over the flowery bid. They continued their love-sport for twelve years unmindful of the passing of the days or nights.
Thereafter the lustful woman became pregnant with well-nourished foetus and she gave birth to a nine beautiful sons at that very place. О Saunaka, Visvakarma, imparted adequate training in various arts to all his sons and they became intellects, competent valorous and wise. He then entrusting then the jobs of gardeners, carpenters, conch-makers, weavers, potters, gold smiths and painters and also blessed them variously. He then dedicated all of them to the universe and discarding the human body, Vis’vakarma went to his heavenly abode
О best of the Brahmanas, the goldsmith, fell from the position of the Brahmanahood by stealing the gold of the Brahmanas.
The woodcutter, being unable to provide wood to the Brahmanas, for yajna in time was fallen from his position with the curse of Brahmana, similarly the painter also had to suffer because of erroneous making of the paintings with the curse of the Brahmanas.
A special type of trader too because of by stealing the gold in league with the goldsmiths, also fell from grace with the curse of the Brahmanas.
With the planting of seed of a painter in the unchaste Sudra woman the mason was born.
Because of his birth from an unchaste woman, he also fell from the grace
The potter’s seed was planted into the womb of an unchaste kotaka woman and an oil-crusher was bom. He was also treated to be degraded one.
Tlvara was born of the seed of a Ksatriya implanted into the womb of the wife of a Rajaputra. He was also considered to be a degraded one because of the illicit relation.
With the planting of the seed of Tlvara into the womb of the wife of an oil-man, a degraded thief was bom who was known as Leta. Six sons were bom of the daughter of Tlvara, with the seed of beta, who were known by the names of Malla, Mantra, Matara, Bhanda, Kola and Kalandara
Because of the illicit relations, with seed of Sudras planted in a Brahmana woman, Candala was bom.
When the semen of Tlvara was planted in the Candala woman, she gone birth to cobbler. The wife of the skinner when impregnated by a Candala, a hunter is bom.
With the union of a hunter and the fisher woman, Konca (bird catcher) was bom with the union of the wife of the bird-catcher and Kaivarta, KarttHra was bom.
О Saunaka, with the semen of Leta implanted in the womb of a Candala girl, two wicked sons named Haddi and Dam were bom.
Then from the daughter of Haddi with the seed of Candala, five wicked sons were bom. They were known as the forest dwellers.
О Saunaka, the son who was bom of the daughter of Tlvara with the seed of Leta, over the bank of the Gariga, was knower as Garigaputra.
From the daughter of Garigaputra and with the seed of Vesadharl, was known as Yungi.
Sundl was bom with the union of a trader and the daughter of Tlvara and with the union of Sundl and a Vaisya, Paundraka was bom.
With the union of a Ksatriya and Karana- kanya, Rajaputra was bom. With the union of Karana and the daughter of Rajaputra Agarl was bom.
Kaivarta was bom with the union of a Ksatriya with the wife of a Vaisya. Patita was bom with the union of Kali and Tlvara who was a degraded one.
The washerman was bom with the union of Dhlvara with the wife of Tlvara. Koyali was bom out of the union of a washer woman and the Tivara.
Sarvasvl was bom as a son with the union of Napita with a cowherdesses who was quite valorous but the killer of animals.
Tlvara with his union with the Sundl girl seven sons were bom, who by keeping the company of Haddi were turned into robbers.
A Brahmana woman came in contact with a sage on the first day of the period. A son was bom thereafter, who was known by the name of Kudar.
Such a person is equated with an unclean Brahmana. He fell from grace because of his mother’s fault during the period and because of his union with a kotaka woman, he was further down graded.
Similarly the wife of a Ksatriya in union with a Ksatriya on the first day of the period gave birth to a son who was quite valorous but became a great robber as well as the archer. He deliberately acted against the words of the Ks atriyas and was therefore known as vdgatlta right from his birth.
Because of the sin of the menses cycle, a Ksatriya’s seed implanted in the womb of a Sudra woman the terrific Mlecchas caste was bom.
These Mlecchas without the ear-holes. They were cmel, heartless, who live with difficulty in the battle, were devoid of cleanliness and good manners, besides being horrible and were irreligious.
The Jola caste was bom from the union of a Mleccha and the kuvinda woman and with the union of kuvinda’s girl and Jola, Saranka was bom.
Thus О Brahmana, because of the fault of Varnasankara (ill legitimate relations) several casts which were earlier unheard of were bom and no one would be able to narrate their names.
From a Brahmana woman Asvanlkumaras produced the Vaidyas. The Vaidyas on the other hand produced many sons from the Sudra women. These people were well versed in the village rituals as well as the indigenous medicines. They in turn produced the snake charmers by cohabiting with the Sudra-woman.
Saunaka said, “How did As’vanI Kumara the son of Surya venture to cohabit with a Brahmana woman? In which form did he implant his seed in her”?
Sauti said, “A Brahmana lady was on her way to pilgrimage. When she reached a lonely orchard with beautiful flower beds, AsvanI Kumara felt attracted towards her. Finding her most beautiful and attractive, AsvanI Kumara, forcibly cohabited with her against her wishes. She dropped the focus then and there in the orchard, but a son with the complexion of the heated gold was bom.
Thereafter the woman, much disgraced, reached her husband’s home with the child. She then narrated to her husband, what ever had happened on the way. In rage, the Brahmana turned out his wife and the child from his home. Thereafter the Brahmana woman, with the use of her divine powers was turned into a stream known as Godavari. As’vanI Kumara patronised the boy and trained him in the use of medicines, mantras and various types of arts.
But the Brahmana by constant counting the constellations and by receiving the wages, fell from the Vedic Dhanna and started roaming on the earth in the form of a dancer. The greedy Brahmana accepted the charities given at the time of solar or lunar eclipses and also those offered at the time of death and as such he came to be known as Agradanl.
A man was bom of the fire altar of the Brahmana. He came to be known as the speaker on Dharma or Sota. The same spokesman on Dharma or Suta is one ancestor
The compassionate Brahma imported him the knowledge of the Puranas. Thus the person bom out of the fire-altar, also known as Suta became the speaker on the Puranas.
With the semen of Suta implanted in the Vaisya woman a man was bom, who happened to be a good orator and was known as a Bhatta in the world. He used to praise everyone. Thus I have narrated the genesis of some of the castes on earth. Several castes bom out of illicit relations have been left out
I shall now speak about the inter-linking of some castes, which was earlier spelt out by Brahma and given the descriptions in the Vedas.
The father is also called as Janaka and also the one who gives birth. Similarly the grand father happens to be the father of the father and the great grand father happens to be the father of the grand father. There relations are called to be in the some gotra or the family
The father of the mother is called the maternal grand father and his father is known as the great grand maternal grand father and his father is known as the great paternal grandfather.
The mother of the mother is called the grand maternal mother, her mother-in-law is known as the great maternal grand mother and is as adorable as the mother herself. The wife of the grand father is known as the grand mother and the wife of his father is known as the great grand mother. The brother of the father is known as the uncle, whereas the brother of the mother is known as maternal uncle.
The sister of the father is known as paternal aunt and the sister of the mother is called the maternal aunt. The words like Sunu, Tanaya, Dayada and Atmaja are synonymous for the son. One’s own son is known as Dhanabhag and VTryaja or the daughter who is born to a person is known as Duhila, Kanya and Atmaja.
The wife of the son is called (daughter-in-law) and the daughter’s husband is called (Son-in- law). A woman’s spouse is called the husband, priya, bharta, svami and kanta. The husband’s brother is called devara and the sister of the husband is called nanada. Similarly the father of the husband is called svasura (father-in-law) and his mother is known as svasrii (mother-in-law). The wife is also called bharyci, jaya, priya, kanta, Strl and patnl. The brother of the wife is known as syalaka (brother-in-law). The wife’s sister is known as s’yalika (sister-in-law). The mother of the wife is also known as svasrii (mother-in-law) and the wife’s father is known as svasura (father-in-law). The real brother is called sodara and the real sister is called sodara.
The son of the sister is called bhagineya and brother’s son is called bhatrja. Sister’s husband is called avutta, bhaginikanta and bhaginipati and the husband of the sister-in-law is also called the brother. The father-in-law of both of them have to be treated as one’s own father.
The. one who gives birth, food one who relieves from danger, wife’s father and the one who imparts knowledge, are known as the father.
The wife or sister of the one who gives food, wife of a teacher, mother and step mother, daughter, daughter-in-law, mother’s mother, grand mother, daughter-in-law, mother’s sister, father’s sister, aunt and maternal aunt are fourteens, all treated to be mothers.
The son of the son is called the grand son and his sons are called the great grand son and his sons are called varisya and kulaja
The son of the daughter is called dauhitra and his sons are known as the bandhava.
The sons of the brother belong to the same caste is called jnati. One own brother as well as the son of the teacher are to be brought up (if need be).
О sage, the teacher’s daughter and the sister, both are like one’s own mother and should be served will. The son’s teacher should be treated like one’s own brother. This is called the intimate relation.
The father-in-law of the son should be treated like one’s own brother. Similar is the case with the father-in-law of the daughter
The teacher of the daughter is also to be treated as the respectable relative. The brothers of the teacher and the father-in-law are to be extended the same respect and with them one has to maintain brotherly relations. He is called a friend. The one who extends pleasure should be treated as the friend and the one who showers miseries should be treated as the enemy.
О best of the Brahmanas, sometimes even brother becomes the cause of miseries and the one with whom one may have no relation at all becomes the cause of all the pleasures. There are three types of relations with the people on earth which are due to exchange of knowledge, physical intercourse and these attracted due to mental attachment. Of these the relations with a friend is based on the mutual love and affection. Which is quite difficult to get.
The mother and the wife of a friend are like one’s own mother. There is no doubt about it. The father of a friend and the brother of a friend are to be treated like one’s own father and brother and brother.
Brahma, who was bom of the lotus has also described an other relation based on the name. Besides one develops intimacy with the forcible intercourse in illicit relation.
The beloved who attracts the mind of someone is known as the co-wife. The lover is at times treated like the husband and the beloved like the wife (some times).
This type of illicit relation has been denounced in our country as well as the countries of the world. Such types of (illicit) relations were started by the sage Visvamitra.
Such a type of relationship is prohibited for the high ranking people even. Such types of relationship brings disgrace not only for the men but also the women. But sometime in certain circumstances, such relationship is allowed for highly placed people.