The Genesis of thе word Durga and other names
Narada said – О Brahmana, I have listened to the astonishing story of Radha. Now you kindly relate to me the story of Durga which I intend to listen to from you. Durga, Narayani, Isani, Visnumaya, Siva, Sati, Nitya, Satya, Bhagavati, Sarvani, Sarvamangala, Ambika, Vaisnavi, Gauri, Parvati, Sanatani are the names for her which have , been described in the Kauthumasakha and bestow welfare.
О best of those well-versed in the Vedas, you kindly speak out th& meaning of all the sixteen names mentioned above which bestow welfare on all and have been mentioned in the Vedas and opined by all.
Who adored this goddess first of all? Thereafter who was the second, third and four to adore?
Narayana said – Lord Visnu has already given out the sixteen names in the Vedas and you are well aware of them. Inspite of that you are asking me the question and therefore I am speaking out whatever has been provided in the scriptures.
The word durga stands for a demon, who was a great obstruction representing human bondage, the deeds of the universe, grief, pain, hell, Yamadatida, birth, great danger and incurable disease and the word з? stands for the killer of the same. Therefore the one who destroys all these miseries, has been given the name of Durga.
In glory, lustre, beauty and virtues she is equated with Narayana and she happens to be her sole energy. She is therefore called Narayani.
Isana is a word used for all success and the word Aaa stands for the giver. Therefore the one who bestows all success is called Isana.
In the earlier times lord Visnu created the illusion (maya) and the entire universe was infatuated with the illusion. She was therefore called Visnumaya.
She stands for the welfare of Siva and is also beloved of Siva, that is why she is called Siva. In every aeon she pervades the universe as the great goddess of success. Being a chaste lady, possessing the best of nature, she is called Sati.
As lord Visnu is eternal, similarly the goddess Bhagavatl is also eternal; at the time of dissolution she merges into the body of her lord Krsna. Therefore, everything from a straw to Brahma is all artificial, but like the lord, the goddess Durga is also truthful.
As all the success of riches, the name present in all the aeons, the word Bhaga is added to the name of the same goddess forming the word Bhagavati.
The one who bestows salvation on all and the one who is the cause of birth, death and old age of all the creatures on earth is called Sarvani.
The word Maiigala stands for welfare and the ЗП stands for the giver of the welfare. Therefore she grants welfare to all earning the name of Sarvamangala.
The word Mangala is used for pleasures, riches and welfare which is bestowed by her on everyone. She is therefore known as Sarvamangala.
The word Amba is used for mother for adoration and worship. Therefore the one who is worshipped by all is called Ambika, the devotees of Visnu call her Vaisnavl since she happens to be the form of Visnu, with whose energy the universe is created by Visnu at the time of creation.
She is of fair complexion, clad in yellow garments, unattached and spotless. Because she is the energy of the great soul she is called Gauri.
Siva happens to be the spouse of Siva. Lord Krsna is also the teacher of all and she happens to be the illusion of Krsna. She is therefore called Gaurl, because of the difference in date, difference in mountains, difference in kalpas and several other differences. She is thus called Parvati.
During the special occasion, the word parvan is used and since she happens to be the goddess of all the sacred occasions, she is called Parvati.
More so, because she happens to be the daughter of the mountain, appeared over a mountain and became the goddess of mountains and so she is called Parvati.
The word sana is used for all times and in its expanded form, Tanl is added to it. Therefore since she is found present in all the times at all the places, she was given the name of Sanatanl. О sage I have explained the meaning of all the sixteen names. I am now narrating the relevant story about her and as told in the Vedas. You listen to me.
In the earlier times at the beginning of creation, lord Krsna adored her in the Goloka in Rasamandala of Vrndavana.
Secondly Brahma adored her getting terrified for Madhu-kaitabha. Thirdly lord Siva adored her at the time of his war with Tripura. Fourthly in the earlier times Mahendra adored her after he was cursed by Durvasa as a result of which he lost all his riches and glory. Having fallen from glory, he adored the goddess with great devotion.
Since then, she was popularly adored by all the sages, the siddhas, the gods and the Rsis everywhere.
О sage, in the earlier times, she appeared from the lustre of all the gods under the name of Durga. All the gods presented her with their weapons and ornaments. She killed the Durga and other demons and bestowed the kingship of word to the gods.
With the change of the kalpa, king Suratha the disciple- of Medha, created an image of the goddess in clay and adored her.
The king adored her, offering sheep, buffaloes, deer, rams, goats, sugar-cane, melons and birds as sacrifices, besides sixteen types of other offerings as prescribed in the Vedas. Thereafter, the king held the kavaca and offered prayers to the goddess earning the desired boon as a result thereof. A businessman, named Samadhi seated on the river bank, also adored the goddess and achieved salvation.
Both the king and Samadhi with their eyes wet with tears and with folded hands adored the goddess and consigned the image of the clay to the water.
Thereafter, tlie king finding the image of the goddess made in clay getting dissolved in the water started crying and the businessman at once left that place and moved to somewhere else.
After performing severe tapas in Puskara, he ended his life and with the grace of the goddess, he achieved Goloka. The brave king on the other hand ruled his country for sixty thousand years without interruption. Thereafter, he entrusted the kingdom and his wife to his son, went to Pus kara-ksetra and performed tapas. He was then turned into Savarni Manu. О son, О best of the sages, thus have I narrated to you the entire story of Durga as described in the scriptures; what else do you want to listen to from me?