Cephalexin

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Cephalexin Brand Names

Biocef | Daxbia | Keflex | Keftab | Panixine

What is Cephalexin

Cephalexin is an oral, first-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with excellent activity against most gram-positive bacteria.

Cephalexin is used primarily in the treatment of otitis media and infections of the respiratory tract (e.g., pharyngitis, tonsillitis, lobar pneumonia) caused by susceptible staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and group A beta-hemolytic streptococci.

Cephalexin (Keflex®) was approved by the FDA in 1971.

Cephalexin hydrochloride (Keftab®) was later approved on October 29, 1987.

Indications

  1. bone and joint infections
  2. cellulitis
  3. community-acquired pneumonia
  4. cystitis
  5. endocarditis prophylaxis
  6. Escherichia coli
  7. Haemophilus influenzae (beta-lactamase negative)
  8. impetigo
  9. infectious arthritis
  10. Klebsiella pneumoniae
  11. lower respiratory tract infections
  12. mastitis
  13. Moraxella catarrhalis
  14. osteomyelitis
  15. otitis media
  16. pharyngitis
  17. pneumonia
  18. prostatitis
  19. Proteus mirabilis
  20. rheumatic fever prophylaxis
  21. skin and skin structure infections
  22. Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA)
  23. Staphylococcus epidermidis
  24. Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci)
  25. Streptococcus pneumoniae
  26. Streptococcus pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococci)
  27. tonsillitis
  28. upper respiratory tract infections
  29. urinary tract infection (UTI)
  30. urinary tract infection (UTI) prophylaxis

Side Effects

  1. abdominal pain
  2. acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP)
  3. agitation
  4. agranulocytosis
  5. anaphylactoid reactions
  6. angioedema
  7. aplastic anemia
  8. arthralgia
  9. azotemia
  10. bleeding
  11. candidiasis
  12. confusion
  13. diarrhea
  14. dizziness
  15. dyspepsia
  16. elevated hepatic enzymes
  17. eosinophilia
  18. erythema multiforme
  19. fatigue
  20. fever
  21. gastritis
  22. hallucinations
  23. headache
  24. hemolytic anemia
  25. hepatitis
  26. hypoprothrombinemia
  27. interstitial nephritis
  28. jaundice
  29. leukopenia
  30. maculopapular rash
  31. nausea
  32. neutropenia
  33. pancytopenia
  34. pruritus
  35. pruritus ani
  36. pseudomembranous colitis
  37. rash
  38. seizures
  39. Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  40. superinfection
  41. thrombocytopenia
  42. toxic epidermal necrolysis
  43. urticaria
  44. vaginitis
  45. vomiting

Monitoring Parameters

  • serum creatinine/BUN

Contraindications

  • antimicrobial resistance
  • breast-feeding
  • cephalosporin hypersensitivity
  • coagulopathy
  • colitis
  • diabetes mellitus
  • diarrhea
  • geriatric
  • GI disease
  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • penicillin hypersensitivity
  • pregnancy
  • pseudomembranous colitis
  • renal failure
  • renal impairment
  • ulcerative colitis
  • viral infection
  • vitamin K deficiency

Interactions

  • Alogliptin; Metformin
  • Canagliflozin; Metformin
  • Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Cholestyramine
  • Colchicine; Probenecid
  • Dapagliflozin; Metformin
  • Dienogest; Estradiol valerate
  • Drospirenone
  • Drospirenone; Estradiol
  • Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Levomefolate
  • Empagliflozin; Linagliptin; Metformin
  • Empagliflozin; Metformin
  • Ertugliflozin; Metformin
  • Estradiol; Levonorgestrel
  • Estradiol; Norethindrone
  • Estradiol; Norgestimate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Desogestrel
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Ethynodiol Diacetate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Etonogestrel
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Ferrous bisglycinate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Folic Acid; Levomefolate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norelgestromin
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate; Ferrous fumarate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone; Ferrous fumarate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestimate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestrel
  • Glipizide; Metformin
  • Glyburide; Metformin
  • Iron Sucrose, Sucroferric Oxyhydroxide
  • Leuprolide; Norethindrone
  • Levonorgestrel
  • Linagliptin; Metformin
  • Loop diuretics
  • Mestranol; Norethindrone
  • Metformin
  • Metformin; Pioglitazone
  • Metformin; Repaglinide
  • Metformin; Rosiglitazone
  • Metformin; Saxagliptin
  • Metformin; Sitagliptin
  • Norethindrone
  • Norgestrel
  • Oral Contraceptives
  • Probenecid
  • Segesterone Acetate; Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Sodium picosulfate; Magnesium oxide; Anhydrous citric acid
  • Warfarin
  • Zinc
  • Zinc Salts

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