Caffeine

Caffeine Brand Names

Cafcit | NoDoz | Stay Awake | Vivarin

What is Caffeine

Caffeine is a naturally occurring xanthine derivative used as a CNS and respiratory stimulant, or as a mild diuretic.

Other xanthine derivatives include the bronchodilator theophylline and theobromine, a compound found in cocoa and chocolate. Caffeine is found in many beverages and soft drinks.

Caffeine is often combined with analgesics or with ergot alkaloids for the treatment of migraine and other types of headache. Caffeine is also sold without a prescription in products marketed to treat drowsiness, or in products for mild water-weight gain.

Caffeine was first approved by the FDA for use in a drug product in 1938. Clinically, it is used both orally and parenterally as a respiratory stimulant in neonates with apnea of prematurity.

Caffeine reduces the frequency of apneic episodes by 30—50% within 24 hours of administration.

Caffeine is preferred over theophylline in neonates due to the ease of once per day administration, reliable oral absorption, and a wide therapeutic window.

A commercial preparation of parenteral caffeine, Cafcit®, was FDA approved for the treatment of apnea of prematurity in October 1999, after years of availability only under orphan drug status (e.g., Neocaf).

The FDA has continued the orphan drug status of the approved prescription formulation.

Indications

  • drowsiness
  • extubation facilitation
  • fatigue
  • lumbar puncture headache
  • neonatal apnea

For the treatment of neonatal apnea (i.e., apnea of prematurity)

Monitoring Parameters

  • blood glucose
  • serum caffeine concentration

Contraindications

  • anxiety
  • breast-feeding
  • cardiac arrhythmias
  • cardiac disease
  • children
  • diabetes mellitus
  • gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • geriatric
  • hepatic disease
  • hyperglycemia
  • hypertension
  • hypoglycemia
  • infertility
  • insomnia
  • MAOI therapy
  • myocardial infarction
  • necrotizing enterocolitis
  • panic disorder
  • pregnancy
  • premature neonates
  • renal impairment
  • seizure disorder
  • thyroid disease
  • tobacco smoking

Interactions

  • Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine
  • Acetaminophen; Butalbital
  • Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine
  • Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene
  • Acetaminophen; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Pseudoephedrine
  • Aclidinium; Formoterol
  • Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Adenosine
  • Albuterol
  • Albuterol; Ipratropium
  • Alprazolam
  • Amantadine
  • Amiodarone
  • Amitriptyline; Chlordiazepoxide
  • Amobarbital
  • Amphetamine
  • Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine
  • Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine Salts
  • Anagrelide
  • Arformoterol
  • Armodafinil
  • Articaine; Epinephrine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole
  • Atropine; Hyoscyamine; Phenobarbital; Scopolamine
  • Barbiturates
  • Barium Sulfate
  • Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Benzphetamine
  • Beta-agonists
  • Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine
  • Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Budesonide; Formoterol
  • Bupropion
  • Bupropion; Naltrexone
  • Butabarbital
  • Caffeine; Ergotamine
  • Cannabidiol
  • Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine
  • Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlophedianol; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Chlordiazepoxide
  • Chlordiazepoxide; Clidinium
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Cimetidine
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Clonazepam
  • Clorazepate
  • Clozapine
  • Codeine; Dexchlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine
  • Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine
  • Darifenacin
  • Desloratadine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Dexmethylphenidate
  • Dextroamphetamine
  • Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine
  • Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine
  • Diazepam
  • Diethylpropion
  • Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine
  • Diphenhydramine
  • Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine
  • Dipyridamole
  • Disulfiram
  • Dobutamine
  • Dopamine
  • Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Levomefolate
  • Dyphylline
  • Dyphylline; Guaifenesin
  • Echinacea
  • Ephedrine
  • Epinephrine
  • Erythromycin
  • Erythromycin; Sulfisoxazole
  • Esketamine
  • Estazolam
  • Eszopiclone
  • Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Desogestrel
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Ethynodiol Diacetate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Etonogestrel
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Ferrous bisglycinate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Folic Acid; Levomefolate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norelgestromin
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate; Ferrous fumarate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone; Ferrous fumarate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestimate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestrel
  • Fexofenadine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Fluconazole
  • Flurazepam
  • Fluticasone; Salmeterol
  • Fluticasone; Umeclidinium; Vilanterol
  • Fluticasone; Vilanterol
  • Fluvoxamine
  • Formoterol
  • Formoterol; Mometasone
  • Givosiran
  • Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol
  • grapefruit juice
  • Green Tea
  • Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine
  • Hydantoins
  • Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine
  • Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate
  • Ibritumomab Tiuxetan
  • Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine
  • Indacaterol
  • Indacaterol; Glycopyrrolate
  • Iohexol
  • Iopamidol
  • Iopromide
  • Ioversol
  • Isocarboxazid
  • Isoniazid, INH
  • Isoniazid, INH; Pyrazinamide, PZA; Rifampin
  • Isoniazid, INH; Rifampin
  • Isosulfan Blue
  • Ketoconazole
  • Levalbuterol
  • Linezolid
  • Lisdexamfetamine
  • Lithium
  • Loratadine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Lorazepam
  • Mephobarbital
  • Metaproterenol
  • Methamphetamine
  • Methenamine; Sodium Acid Phosphate
  • Methenamine; Sodium Acid Phosphate; Methylene Blue; Hyoscyamine
  • Methohexital
  • Methylphenidate
  • Midazolam
  • Midodrine
  • Modafinil
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
  • Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine
  • Non-Ionic Contrast Media
  • Norepinephrine
  • Obeticholic Acid
  • Olodaterol
  • Oxazepam
  • Oxybutynin
  • Oxymetazoline
  • Pentobarbital
  • Phendimetrazine
  • Phenelzine
  • Phenobarbital
  • Phentermine
  • Phentermine; Topiramate
  • Phenylephrine
  • Phenylephrine; Promethazine
  • Pirbuterol
  • Potassium Phosphate; Sodium Phosphate
  • Prilocaine; Epinephrine
  • Primidone
  • Procarbazine
  • Pseudoephedrine
  • Quazepam
  • Racepinephrine
  • Regadenoson
  • Rucaparib
  • Salmeterol
  • Secobarbital
  • Segesterone Acetate; Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Selegiline
  • Sodium Oxybate
  • Sodium Phosphate Monobasic Monohydrate; Sodium Phosphate Dibasic Anhydrous
  • Solifenacin
  • Solriamfetol
  • Tacrine
  • Temazepam
  • Terbinafine
  • Terbutaline
  • Theophylline, Aminophylline
  • Thiabendazole
  • Thiopental
  • Tiotropium; Olodaterol
  • tobacco
  • Tolterodine
  • Trandolapril; Verapamil
  • Tranylcypromine
  • Triazolam
  • Trospium
  • Umeclidinium; Vilanterol
  • Vemurafenib
  • Verapamil
  • Vincristine Liposomal
  • Yohimbine
  • Zileuton
  • Zolpidem
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