Major differential diagnosis for acute abdominopelvic conditions that can be diagnosed on CT and MRI

What is the major differential diagnosis for acute abdominopelvic conditions that can be diagnosed on CT and MRI?

This is a broad but important differential diagnosis, with representative etiologies as follows.

  • • Inflammatory/infectious causes include acute hepatitis; acute cholecystitis; acute cholangitis; acute pancreatitis; acute pyelonephritis; peptic ulcer disease; acute infectious or inflammatory gastritis, enteritis, or colitis; acute diverticulitis; acute appendicitis; mesenteric lymphadenitis; peritonitis; epiploic appendagitis; segmental omental infarction; pelvic inflammatory disease (PID); abdominal or pelvic abscess; and Fournier gangrene.
  • • Vascular causes include solid organ or neoplasm infarction; bowel (mesenteric) ischemia/infarction; hemorrhage (whether spontaneous or into a cyst or neoplasm); abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture; abdominal aortic dissection or penetrating aortic ulcer; acute vascular occlusion; and adnexal torsion.
  • • Traumatic causes include solid organ injury; hollow organ injury; and vascular injury.
  • • Other causes include hollow organ (bowel, biliary tree, urothelial system) obstruction; bowel perforation; solid organ rupture; cyst or neoplasm rupture; abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS); and ectopic pregnancy.
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