Zidovudine ZDV

What is Zidovudine ZDV

Zidovudine is an antiretroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI). It is FDA-approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infections and prevention of perinatal maternal-to-fetal HIV-1 transmission (i.e., antepartum and intrapartum therapy in infected mother, postpartum therapy in exposed neonate).

Due to the development of resistance, zidovudine is not recommended to be given as monotherapy, except when given during pregnancy to prevent HIV transmission to the unborn child.

Brand Name

Retrovir

Indications & Dosage

  • Epstein-Barr virus
  • hepatitis B virus
  • human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
  • human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prophylaxis
  • human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)
  • perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prophylaxis
  • T-cell leukemia/lymphoma

NOTE: HIV guidelines recommend avoiding use of zidovudine with stavudine due to the potential for antagonism.

Side Effects

  1. abdominal pain
  2. amblyopia
  3. anaphylactoid reactions
  4. anemia
  5. angioedema
  6. anorexia
  7. anxiety
  8. aplastic anemia
  9. arthralgia
  10. asthenia
  11. back pain
  12. bone marrow suppression
  13. cardiomyopathy
  14. chest pain (unspecified)
  15. chills
  16. confusion
  17. constipation
  18. cough
  19. depression
  20. diarrhea
  21. dizziness
  22. drowsiness
  23. dysgeusia
  24. dyspepsia
  25. dysphagia
  26. dyspnea
  27. edema
  28. elevated hepatic enzymes
  29. erythema
  30. esophageal ulceration
  31. fatigue
  32. fever
  33. flatulence
  34. headache
  35. hearing loss
  36. heart failure
  37. hematuria
  38. hemolytic anemia
  39. hepatitis
  40. hepatomegaly
  41. hepatotoxicity
  42. hyperamylasemia
  43. hyperbilirubinemia
  44. hyperhidrosis
  45. increased urinary frequency
  46. influenza
  47. insomnia
  48. irritability
  49. jaundice
  50. lactic acidosis
  51. leukopenia
  52. lipodystrophy
  53. lymphadenopathy
  54. macrocytosis
  55. macular edema
  56. malaise
  57. mania
  58. musculoskeletal pain
  59. myalgia
  60. myopathy
  61. nail discoloration
  62. nasal congestion
  63. nausea
  64. neutropenia
  65. oral ulceration
  66. otalgia
  67. pancreatitis
  68. pancytopenia
  69. paresthesias
  70. peripheral neuropathy
  71. photophobia
  72. pruritus
  73. rash
  74. red cell aplasia
  75. rhabdomyolysis
  76. rhinitis
  77. rhinorrhea
  78. seizures
  79. sinusitis
  80. splenomegaly
  81. steatosis
  82. Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  83. stomatitis
  84. syncope
  85. thrombocytopenia
  86. toxic epidermal necrolysis
  87. tremor
  88. urticaria
  89. vasculitis
  90. vertigo
  91. vitamin B12 deficiency
  92. vomiting
  93. weight loss
  94. wheezing

Monitoring Parameters

  • blood glucose
  • CBC with differential
  • CD4+ T cell count
  • hepatitis B serology
  • LFTs
  • plasma hepatitis C RNA
  • plasma HIV RNA
  • pregnancy testing
  • serum bilirubin (total and direct)
  • serum cholesterol
  • serum creatinine/BUN
  • serum lipid profile
  • urinalysis

Contraindications

  • alcoholism
  • anemia
  • autoimmune disease
  • bone marrow suppression
  • breast-feeding
  • chemotherapy
  • females
  • Graves’ disease
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome
  • hepatic disease
  • hepatitis
  • hepatitis B and HIV coinfection
  • hepatitis C and HIV coinfection
  • hepatotoxicity or lactic acidosis
  • human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection resistance
  • immune reconstitution syndrome
  • in utero exposure
  • intramuscular administration
  • latex hypersensitivity
  • myopathy
  • neutropenia
  • obesity
  • pregnancy
  • radiation therapy
  • renal failure
  • renal impairment
  • subcutaneous administration

Interactions

  • Acetaminophen
  • Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine
  • Acetaminophen; Butalbital
  • Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine
  • Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine
  • Acetaminophen; Codeine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Doxylamine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene
  • Acetaminophen; Diphenhydramine
  • Acetaminophen; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Hydrocodone
  • Acetaminophen; Oxycodone
  • Acetaminophen; Pentazocine
  • Acetaminophen; Propoxyphene
  • Acetaminophen; Pseudoephedrine
  • Acetaminophen; Tramadol
  • Adefovir
  • Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Lansoprazole
  • Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole
  • Amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC)
  • Atovaquone
  • Atovaquone; Proguanil
  • Azathioprine
  • Benzhydrocodone; Acetaminophen
  • Bortezomib
  • Cidofovir
  • Clarithromycin
  • Clofarabine
  • Colchicine; Probenecid
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Dapsone
  • Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir
  • Doxorubicin
  • Doxorubicin Liposomal
  • Echinacea
  • Fluconazole
  • Flucytosine
  • food
  • Foscarnet
  • Fosphenytoin
  • Ganciclovir
  • Indinavir
  • Interferon Alfa-2b; Ribavirin
  • Interferons
  • Isoniazid, INH; Pyrazinamide, PZA; Rifampin
  • Isoniazid, INH; Rifampin
  • Leflunomide
  • Lopinavir; Ritonavir
  • Methadone
  • Nevirapine
  • Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir
  • Omeprazole; Amoxicillin; Rifabutin
  • Orlistat
  • Phenytoin
  • Probenecid
  • Pyrimethamine
  • Pyrimethamine; Sulfadoxine
  • Ribavirin
  • Rifabutin
  • Rifampin
  • Rifapentine
  • Ritonavir
  • Stavudine, d4T
  • Sulfamethoxazole; Trimethoprim, SMX-TMP, Cotrimoxazole
  • Sulfonamides
  • Telbivudine
  • Teriflunomide
  • Tipranavir
  • Trimethoprim
  • Valganciclovir
  • Valproic Acid, Divalproex Sodium
  • Voriconazole
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