Zaleplon

What is Zaleplon

Zaleplon is a short-acting, non-benzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic. It belongs to a new class of drugs known as pyrazolopyrimidines. Zaleplon possesses anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, hypnotic, and myorelaxant properties.

It has been shown to decrease the time to sleep onset for up to 35 days in clinical trials without tolerance and has minimal withdrawal-emergent adverse effects.

Compared to zolpidem, zaleplon has a faster onset of action and a shorter terminal elimination half-life. Both zaleplon and zolpidem are not associated with early morning awakening.

Zaleplon was approved by the FDA in August 1999.

Brand Name

Sonata

Indications & Dosage

  • insomnia

For the short-term (generally 7 to 10 days) treatment of insomnia

Side Effects

  1. abdominal pain
  2. abnormal dreams
  3. acne vulgaris
  4. agitation
  5. alopecia
  6. amnesia
  7. anaphylactoid reactions
  8. anemia
  9. angina
  10. angioedema
  11. anorexia
  12. anxiety
  13. apnea
  14. appetite stimulation
  15. arthralgia
  16. arthropathy
  17. asthenia
  18. ataxia
  19. atopic dermatitis
  20. back pain
  21. blepharitis
  22. bradycardia
  23. bronchospasm
  24. bundle-branch block
  25. cataracts
  26. cheilitis
  27. chest pain (unspecified)
  28. cholelithiasis
  29. colitis
  30. complex sleep-related behaviors
  31. confusion
  32. conjunctivitis
  33. constipation
  34. contact dermatitis
  35. corneal erosion
  36. cyanosis
  37. cystitis
  38. depression
  39. diabetes mellitus
  40. diplopia
  41. dizziness
  42. drowsiness
  43. dysarthria
  44. dysgeusia
  45. dysmenorrhea
  46. dyspepsia
  47. dysphagia
  48. dyspnea
  49. dystonic reaction
  50. dysuria
  51. ecchymosis
  52. edema
  53. elevated hepatic enzymes
  54. emotional lability
  55. eosinophilia
  56. epistaxis
  57. eructation
  58. esophagitis
  59. euphoria
  60. fever
  61. flatulence
  62. gastritis
  63. GI obstruction
  64. gingivitis
  65. glossitis
  66. goiter
  67. gout
  68. hallucinations
  69. headache
  70. hearing loss
  71. hematuria
  72. hiccups
  73. hostility
  74. hyperacusis
  75. hyperbilirubinemia
  76. hypercholesterolemia
  77. hyperesthesia
  78. hyperglycemia
  79. hyperhidrosis
  80. hyperkinesis
  81. hyperreflexia
  82. hypersalivation
  83. hypertension
  84. hypertonia
  85. hyperuricemia
  86. hyperventilation
  87. hypoglycemia
  88. hyporeflexia
  89. hypotension
  90. hypothyroidism
  91. hypotonia
  92. impaired cognition
  93. impotence (erectile dysfunction)
  94. increased urinary frequency
  95. insomnia
  96. lactose intolerance
  97. laryngitis
  98. leukocytosis
  99. leukorrhea
  100. libido decrease
  101. lymphadenopathy
  102. lymphocytosis
  103. maculopapular rash
  104. malaise
  105. mastalgia
  106. melena
  107. memory impairment
  108. menorrhagia
  109. menstrual irregularity
  110. myalgia
  111. myasthenia
  112. myoclonia
  113. nausea
  114. nephrolithiasis
  115. neuropathic pain
  116. nightmares
  117. nystagmus
  118. ocular hemorrhage
  119. ocular pain
  120. oral ulceration
  121. orthostatic hypotension
  122. osteoporosis
  123. otalgia
  124. palpitations
  125. paresthesias
  126. parosmia
  127. peptic ulcer
  128. pericardial effusion
  129. peripheral edema
  130. peripheral vasodilation
  131. photophobia
  132. photosensitivity
  133. physiological dependence
  134. pleural effusion
  135. proteinuria
  136. pruritus
  137. psoriasis
  138. psychomotor impairment
  139. ptosis
  140. pulmonary embolism
  141. purpura
  142. rash
  143. respiratory depression
  144. retinal detachment
  145. seizures
  146. sinus tachycardia
  147. skin discoloration
  148. somnambulism
  149. stomatitis
  150. syncope
  151. teeth grinding (bruxism)
  152. tinnitus
  153. tongue discoloration
  154. tremor
  155. trismus
  156. urinary incontinence
  157. urinary retention
  158. urinary urgency
  159. urticaria
  160. vaginal bleeding
  161. vaginitis
  162. ventricular tachycardia
  163. vertigo
  164. visual impairment
  165. weight gain
  166. weight loss
  167. xerophthalmia
  168. xerosis
  169. xerostomia

Monitoring Parameters

  • laboratory monitoring not necessary

Contraindications

  • abrupt discontinuation
  • alcoholism
  • behavioral changes
  • breast-feeding
  • children
  • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • coadministration with other CNS depressants
  • complex sleep-related behaviors
  • depression
  • driving or operating machinery
  • drug-induced complex sleep-related behaviors
  • ethanol ingestion
  • geriatric
  • hepatic disease
  • history of angioedema
  • infants
  • labor
  • obstetric delivery
  • pregnancy
  • respiratory depression
  • respiratory insufficiency
  • salicylate hypersensitivity
  • sleep apnea
  • substance abuse
  • suicidal ideation
  • tartrazine dye hypersensitivity

Interactions

  • Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine
  • Acetaminophen; Butalbital
  • Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine
  • Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine
  • Acetaminophen; Codeine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Doxylamine
  • Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene
  • Acetaminophen; Diphenhydramine
  • Acetaminophen; Hydrocodone
  • Acetaminophen; Oxycodone
  • Acetaminophen; Pentazocine
  • Acetaminophen; Propoxyphene
  • Acetaminophen; Tramadol
  • Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Aldesleukin, IL-2
  • Alfentanil
  • Alprazolam
  • Amitriptyline
  • Amitriptyline; Chlordiazepoxide
  • Amobarbital
  • Amoxapine
  • Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Lansoprazole
  • Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole
  • Apalutamide
  • Apomorphine
  • Apraclonidine
  • Aripiprazole
  • Asenapine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol
  • Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone
  • Atazanavir
  • Atazanavir; Cobicistat
  • Atropine; Difenoxin
  • Atropine; Diphenoxylate
  • Atropine; Hyoscyamine; Phenobarbital; Scopolamine
  • atypical antipsychotic
  • Azelastine
  • Azelastine; Fluticasone
  • Baclofen
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  • Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital
  • Belladonna; Opium
  • Benzhydrocodone; Acetaminophen
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Benztropine
  • Brexpiprazole
  • Brimonidine
  • Brimonidine; Brinzolamide
  • Brimonidine; Timolol
  • Brompheniramine
  • Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine
  • Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin
  • Brompheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone
  • Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Buprenorphine
  • Buprenorphine; Naloxone
  • Buspirone
  • Butabarbital
  • Butorphanol
  • Caffeine
  • Caffeine; Ergotamine
  • Cannabidiol
  • Capsaicin; Metaxalone
  • Carbamazepine
  • Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine
  • Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin
  • Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine
  • Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbetapentane; Pyrilamine
  • Carbidopa; Levodopa; Entacapone
  • Carbinoxamine
  • Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Cariprazine
  • Carisoprodol
  • Cenobamate
  • Ceritinib
  • Cetirizine
  • Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlophedianol; Dexbrompheniramine
  • Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chloramphenicol
  • Chlorcyclizine
  • Chlordiazepoxide
  • Chlordiazepoxide; Clidinium
  • Chlorpheniramine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Codeine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone
  • Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorzoxazone
  • Cimetidine
  • Clarithromycin
  • Clemastine
  • Clobazam
  • Clomipramine
  • Clonazepam
  • Clorazepate
  • Clozapine
  • Cobicistat
  • Codeine
  • Codeine; Guaifenesin
  • Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine
  • Codeine; Promethazine
  • COMT inhibitors
  • Conivaptan
  • Cyclizine
  • Cyclobenzaprine
  • Cyproheptadine
  • Dantrolene
  • Darunavir
  • Darunavir; Cobicistat
  • Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide
  • Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir
  • Delavirdine
  • Desipramine
  • Deutetrabenazine
  • Dexchlorpheniramine
  • Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Dexmedetomidine
  • Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine
  • Diazepam
  • Dicyclomine
  • Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine
  • Dimenhydrinate
  • Diphenhydramine
  • Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen
  • Diphenhydramine; Naproxen
  • Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine
  • Doxepin
  • Doxylamine
  • Doxylamine; Pyridoxine
  • Dronabinol
  • Droperidol
  • Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide
  • Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate
  • Enflurane
  • Entacapone
  • Enzalutamide
  • Erythromycin
  • Erythromycin; Sulfisoxazole
  • Esketamine
  • Estazolam
  • Ethanol
  • Etomidate
  • Ezogabine
  • Fentanyl
  • Flumazenil
  • Fluoxetine; Olanzapine
  • Flurazepam
  • food
  • Fosamprenavir
  • Fosphenytoin
  • Fospropofol
  • Gabapentin
  • General anesthetics
  • grapefruit juice
  • Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone
  • Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Haloperidol
  • Halothane
  • Homatropine; Hydrocodone
  • Hydrocodone
  • Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen
  • Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate
  • Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine
  • Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Hydromorphone
  • Hydroxyzine
  • Ibuprofen; Oxycodone
  • Idelalisib
  • Iloperidone
  • Imipramine
  • Indinavir
  • Isocarboxazid
  • Isoflurane
  • Isoniazid, INH; Pyrazinamide, PZA; Rifampin
  • Isoniazid, INH; Rifampin
  • Itraconazole
  • Ketamine
  • Ketoconazole
  • Lasmiditan
  • Lemborexant
  • Levocetirizine
  • Levomethadyl
  • Levorphanol
  • Lithium
  • Lofexidine
  • Lopinavir; Ritonavir
  • Lorazepam
  • Loxapine
  • Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor
  • Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor
  • Lumateperone
  • Lurasidone
  • Maprotiline
  • Meclizine
  • Melatonin
  • Mepenzolate
  • Meperidine
  • Meperidine; Promethazine
  • Mephobarbital
  • Metaxalone
  • Methadone
  • Methocarbamol
  • Methohexital
  • Methscopolamine
  • Metoclopramide
  • Midazolam
  • Mifepristone
  • Mirtazapine
  • Mitotane
  • Molindone
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
  • Morphine
  • Morphine; Naltrexone
  • Nabilone
  • Nalbuphine
  • Nefazodone
  • Nelfinavir
  • Nortriptyline
  • Olanzapine
  • Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir
  • Orphenadrine
  • Oxazepam
  • Oxybutynin
  • Oxycodone
  • Oxymorphone
  • Paliperidone
  • Papaverine
  • Pentazocine
  • Pentazocine; Naloxone
  • Pentobarbital
  • Perampanel
  • Perphenazine; Amitriptyline
  • Phenelzine
  • Phenobarbital
  • Phenothiazines
  • Phentermine; Topiramate
  • Phenytoin
  • Pimozide
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  • Pramipexole
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  • Primidone
  • Propofol
  • Propoxyphene
  • Protriptyline
  • Quazepam
  • Quetiapine
  • Ramelteon
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  • Rifampin
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  • Ropinirole
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  • Safinamide
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  • Scopolamine
  • Secobarbital
  • Sedating H1-blockers
  • Selegiline
  • Sevoflurane
  • Sodium Oxybate
  • St. John’s Wort, Hypericum perforatum
  • Sufentanil
  • Suvorexant
  • Tapentadol
  • Telithromycin
  • Temazepam
  • Tetrabenazine
  • Thalidomide
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  • Tolcapone
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  • Tramadol
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  • Trazodone
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