Zalcitabine ddC

What is Zalcitabine ddC

Zalcitabine (dideoxycytidine, ddC) is an antiretroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI). In June 1992, it became the third agent to be approved by the FDA for the treatment of HIV infection.

However, because monotherapy with zalcitabine has been shown to be inferior to monotherapy with zidovudine (ZDV), zalcitabine was approved for use only in combination with zidovudine. In addition, zalcitabine was given a priority review by the FDA.

In February 1996, zalcitabine was granted full FDA approval based on data from two randomized, double-blind clinical studies. Approval was based on improvements in CD4 counts and not demonstration of clinical efficacy.

Brand Name

Hivid

Indications

  • hepatitis B virus
  • human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection

Side Effects

  1. anaphylactoid reactions
  2. anemia
  3. arthralgia
  4. cardiomyopathy
  5. clastogenesis
  6. elevated hepatic enzymes
  7. erythema
  8. esophageal ulceration
  9. folliculitis
  10. hepatic failure
  11. hepatomegaly
  12. hepatotoxicity
  13. jaundice
  14. lactic acidosis
  15. leukopenia
  16. lipodystrophy
  17. maculopapular rash
  18. myalgia
  19. neutropenia
  20. oral ulceration
  21. pancreatitis
  22. peripheral neuropathy
  23. pruritus
  24. steatosis
  25. urticaria

Monitoring Parameters

  • CBC
  • CD4+ T cell count
  • LFTs
  • plasma HIV RNA
  • serum amylase

Contraindications

  • alcoholism
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • breast-feeding
  • children
  • diabetes mellitus
  • females
  • hepatic disease
  • hepatitis
  • hepatotoxicity or lactic acidosis
  • hypertriglyceridemia
  • immune reconstitution syndrome
  • infants
  • jaundice
  • neonates
  • obesity
  • pancreatitis
  • peripheral neuropathy
  • pregnancy
  • renal failure
  • renal impairment

Interactions

  • Adefovir
  • Aluminum Hydroxide
  • Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Carbonate
  • Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Hydroxide
  • Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Hydroxide; Simethicone
  • Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Trisilicate
  • Amikacin
  • Aminoglycosides
  • Amphotericin B
  • Amphotericin B cholesteryl sulfate complex (ABCD)
  • Amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC)
  • Amphotericin B liposomal (LAmB)
  • Amprenavir
  • Atazanavir
  • Atazanavir; Cobicistat
  • Bismuth Subcitrate Potassium; Metronidazole; Tetracycline
  • Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline
  • Bortezomib
  • Calcium Carbonate; Magnesium Hydroxide
  • Chloramphenicol
  • Cimetidine
  • Colchicine; Probenecid
  • Dapsone
  • Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir
  • Didanosine, ddI
  • Disulfiram
  • Doxorubicin
  • Echinacea
  • Ethionamide
  • food
  • Foscarnet
  • Fosphenytoin
  • Gentamicin
  • Hydralazine
  • Hydralazine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Hydralazine; Isosorbide Dinitrate, ISDN
  • Interferon Alfa-2b; Ribavirin
  • Interferons
  • Iodoquinol
  • Isoniazid, INH
  • Isoniazid, INH; Pyrazinamide, PZA; Rifampin
  • Isoniazid, INH; Rifampin
  • Kanamycin
  • Lopinavir; Ritonavir
  • Magnesium Hydroxide
  • Metoclopramide
  • Metronidazole
  • Nitrofurantoin
  • Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir
  • Orlistat
  • Paromomycin
  • Pentamidine
  • Phenytoin
  • Plazomicin
  • Probenecid
  • Ribavirin
  • Ritonavir
  • Stavudine, d4T
  • Streptomycin
  • Tinidazole
  • Tobramycin
  • Vincristine
  • Vincristine Liposomal
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