Triazolam

What is Triazolam

Triazolam is an oral benzodiazepine used as a hypnotic agent in the short-term management of insomnia.

Compared to chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, and flurazepam, triazolam has a relatively shorter half-life and does not generate active metabolites.

However, triazolam has been associated with numerous reports of retrograde amnesia.

Doses should be reduced when used in the elderly. Triazolam was approved by the FDA in 1982.

Brand Name

Halcion

Indications & Dosage

  • insomnia

For the short-term treatment of insomnia

Side Effects

  1. agitation
  2. amnesia
  3. anaphylactoid reactions
  4. angioedema
  5. anorexia
  6. anxiety
  7. apnea
  8. ataxia
  9. chest pain (unspecified)
  10. complex sleep-related behaviors
  11. confusion
  12. constipation
  13. depression
  14. diarrhea
  15. dizziness
  16. drowsiness
  17. dysarthria
  18. dysesthesia
  19. dysgeusia
  20. EEG changes
  21. euphoria
  22. fatigue
  23. glossitis
  24. hallucinations
  25. headache
  26. hepatic failure
  27. insomnia
  28. irritability
  29. jaundice
  30. mania
  31. memory impairment
  32. menstrual irregularity
  33. muscle cramps
  34. nasal congestion
  35. nausea
  36. neonatal abstinence syndrome
  37. neonatal respiratory depression
  38. nightmares
  39. paresthesias
  40. physiological dependence
  41. pruritus
  42. psychological dependence
  43. respiratory depression
  44. restlessness
  45. sinus tachycardia
  46. somnambulism
  47. stomatitis
  48. syncope
  49. teratogenesis
  50. tinnitus
  51. tolerance
  52. urinary incontinence
  53. urinary retention
  54. visual impairment
  55. vomiting
  56. weakness
  57. withdrawal
  58. xerostomia

Monitoring Parameters

  • laboratory monitoring not necessary

Contraindications

  • abrupt discontinuation
  • alcoholism
  • anxiety
  • asthma
  • benzodiazepine dependence
  • benzodiazepine hypersensitivity
  • bipolar disorder
  • breast-feeding
  • bronchitis
  • children
  • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • closed-angle glaucoma
  • CNS depression
  • coadministration with other CNS depressants
  • coma
  • complex sleep-related behaviors
  • dementia
  • depression
  • driving or operating machinery
  • ethanol ingestion
  • ethanol intoxication
  • geriatric
  • hepatic disease
  • infants
  • labor
  • mania
  • myasthenia gravis
  • neonates
  • obstetric delivery
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • porphyria
  • pregnancy
  • psychosis
  • pulmonary disease
  • renal failure
  • renal impairment
  • respiratory depression
  • seizure disorder
  • seizures
  • shock
  • sleep apnea
  • status epilepticus
  • substance abuse
  • suicidal ideation

Interactions

  • Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine
  • Acetaminophen; Butalbital
  • Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine
  • Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine
  • Acetaminophen; Codeine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Doxylamine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene
  • Acetaminophen; Diphenhydramine
  • Acetaminophen; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Hydrocodone
  • Acetaminophen; Oxycodone
  • Acetaminophen; Pentazocine
  • Acetaminophen; Propoxyphene
  • Acetaminophen; Tramadol
  • Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Aldesleukin, IL-2
  • Alfentanil
  • Alprazolam
  • Amiodarone
  • Amobarbital
  • Amoxapine
  • Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Lansoprazole
  • Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole
  • Apalutamide
  • Apomorphine
  • Apraclonidine
  • Aprepitant, Fosaprepitant
  • Aripiprazole
  • Armodafinil
  • Asenapine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Omeprazole
  • Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone
  • Atazanavir; Cobicistat
  • Atropine; Difenoxin
  • Atropine; Diphenoxylate
  • Atropine; Hyoscyamine; Phenobarbital; Scopolamine
  • Azelastine
  • Azelastine; Fluticasone
  • Barbiturates
  • Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital
  • Belladonna; Opium
  • Benzhydrocodone; Acetaminophen
  • Benztropine
  • Boceprevir
  • Bosentan
  • Brigatinib
  • Brimonidine
  • Brimonidine; Brinzolamide
  • Brimonidine; Timolol
  • Brompheniramine
  • Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine
  • Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin
  • Brompheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone
  • Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Buprenorphine
  • Buprenorphine; Naloxone
  • Bupropion
  • Bupropion; Naltrexone
  • Buspirone
  • Butabarbital
  • Butorphanol
  • Caffeine
  • Caffeine; Ergotamine
  • Cannabidiol
  • Carbamazepine
  • Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine
  • Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin
  • Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine
  • Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbetapentane; Pyrilamine
  • Carbinoxamine
  • Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Cariprazine
  • Cenobamate
  • Ceritinib
  • Cetirizine
  • Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlophedianol; Dexbrompheniramine
  • Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlophedianol; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Chloramphenicol
  • Chlorcyclizine
  • Chlorpheniramine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Codeine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone
  • Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorthalidone; Clonidine
  • Cimetidine
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Cisapride
  • Clarithromycin
  • Clemastine
  • Clobazam
  • Clonidine
  • Clozapine
  • Cobicistat
  • Codeine
  • Codeine; Guaifenesin
  • Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine
  • Codeine; Promethazine
  • Colchicine; Probenecid
  • COMT inhibitors
  • Conivaptan
  • Crizotinib
  • Cyclizine
  • Cyproheptadine
  • Dabrafenib
  • Danazol
  • Darunavir; Cobicistat
  • Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide
  • Delavirdine
  • Desflurane
  • Deutetrabenazine
  • Dexchlorpheniramine
  • Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Dexmedetomidine
  • Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine
  • Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Dicyclomine
  • Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine
  • Diltiazem
  • Dimenhydrinate
  • Diphenhydramine
  • Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen
  • Diphenhydramine; Naproxen
  • Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine
  • Disulfiram
  • Doxylamine
  • Doxylamine; Pyridoxine
  • Dronabinol
  • Dronedarone
  • Droperidol
  • Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Levomefolate
  • Duvelisib
  • Elbasvir; Grazoprevir
  • Elexacaftor; tezacaftor; ivacaftor
  • Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide
  • Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate
  • Encorafenib
  • Enflurane
  • Enzalutamide
  • Erythromycin
  • Erythromycin; Sulfisoxazole
  • Esketamine
  • Eslicarbazepine
  • Eszopiclone
  • Ethanol
  • Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Desogestrel
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Ethynodiol Diacetate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Etonogestrel
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Ferrous bisglycinate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Folic Acid; Levomefolate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norelgestromin
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate; Ferrous fumarate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone; Ferrous fumarate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestimate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestrel
  • Ethotoin
  • Etomidate
  • Fedratinib
  • Fentanyl
  • Fluconazole
  • Flumazenil
  • Fluoxetine
  • Fluoxetine; Olanzapine
  • Fluvoxamine
  • food
  • Fosphenytoin
  • Fospropofol
  • Gabapentin
  • General anesthetics
  • grapefruit juice
  • Green Tea
  • Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone
  • Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Guanabenz
  • Guanfacine
  • Haloperidol
  • Halothane
  • Homatropine; Hydrocodone
  • Hydantoins
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Methyldopa
  • Hydrocodone
  • Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen
  • Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate
  • Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine
  • Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Hydromorphone
  • Hydroxyzine
  • Ibuprofen; Oxycodone
  • Idelalisib
  • Iloperidone
  • Imatinib
  • Isavuconazonium
  • Isoflurane
  • Isoniazid, INH; Pyrazinamide, PZA; Rifampin
  • Isoniazid, INH; Rifampin
  • Itraconazole
  • Ivacaftor
  • Ivosidenib
  • Ketamine
  • Ketoconazole
  • Larotrectinib
  • Lasmiditan
  • Lefamulin
  • Lemborexant
  • Lesinurad
  • Lesinurad; Allopurinol
  • Letermovir
  • Levocetirizine
  • Levomethadyl
  • Levomilnacipran
  • Levorphanol
  • Lithium
  • Lofexidine
  • Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor
  • Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor
  • Lumateperone
  • Lurasidone
  • Magnesium Salts
  • Maprotiline
  • Meclizine
  • Melatonin
  • Meperidine
  • Meperidine; Promethazine
  • Mephobarbital
  • Meprobamate
  • Mestranol; Norethindrone
  • Methadone
  • Methocarbamol
  • Methohexital
  • Methscopolamine
  • Methyldopa
  • Metoclopramide
  • Metyrapone
  • Metyrosine
  • Mifepristone
  • Milnacipran
  • Minocycline
  • Mirtazapine
  • Mitotane
  • Modafinil
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
  • Morphine
  • Morphine; Naltrexone
  • Nabilone
  • Nalbuphine
  • Nefazodone
  • Netupitant, Fosnetupitant; Palonosetron
  • Nevirapine
  • Nicardipine
  • Nilotinib
  • Nitroglycerin
  • Olanzapine
  • Omeprazole
  • Omeprazole; Amoxicillin; Rifabutin
  • Omeprazole; Sodium Bicarbonate
  • Oritavancin
  • Oxybutynin
  • Oxycodone
  • Oxymorphone
  • Palbociclib
  • Paliperidone
  • Papaverine
  • Pazopanib
  • Pentazocine
  • Pentazocine; Naloxone
  • Pentobarbital
  • Perampanel
  • Phenobarbital
  • Phenothiazines
  • Phentermine; Topiramate
  • Phenylephrine
  • Phenylephrine; Promethazine
  • Phenytoin
  • Pimozide
  • Posaconazole
  • Pramipexole
  • Prasterone, Dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA (Dietary Supplements)
  • Prasterone, Dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA (FDA-approved)
  • Pregabalin
  • Primidone
  • Probenecid
  • Procarbazine
  • Propofol
  • Propoxyphene
  • Protease inhibitors
  • Quetiapine
  • Ramelteon
  • Ranitidine
  • Ranolazine
  • Rasagiline
  • Remifentanil
  • Ribociclib
  • Ribociclib; Letrozole
  • Rifabutin
  • Rifampin
  • Rifapentine
  • Risperidone
  • Ropinirole
  • Rotigotine
  • Rucaparib
  • Rufinamide
  • Safinamide
  • Scopolamine
  • Secobarbital
  • Sedating H1-blockers
  • Segesterone Acetate; Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Selpercatinib
  • Sevoflurane
  • Simeprevir
  • Sincalide
  • Skeletal Muscle Relaxants
  • Sodium Oxybate
  • St. John’s Wort, Hypericum perforatum
  • Sufentanil
  • Suvorexant
  • Tapentadol
  • Teduglutide
  • Telaprevir
  • Telithromycin
  • Telotristat Ethyl
  • Tetrabenazine
  • Tezacaftor; Ivacaftor
  • Thalidomide
  • Theophylline, Aminophylline
  • Thiopental
  • Thiothixene
  • Tiagabine
  • Tizanidine
  • Topiramate
  • Tramadol
  • Trandolapril; Verapamil
  • Trazodone
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Trihexyphenidyl
  • Trimethobenzamide
  • Triprolidine
  • Tucatinib
  • Valerian, Valeriana officinalis
  • Vemurafenib
  • Verapamil
  • Vigabatrin
  • Vilazodone
  • Voriconazole
  • Zafirlukast
  • Zaleplon
  • Zileuton
  • Ziprasidone
  • Zolpidem
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