Sulfamethoxazole

What is Sulfamethoxazole

Sulfamethoxazole is an antibacterial sulfonamide. It is classified as an intermediate-acting sulfonamide and is longer-acting than sulfisoxazole, which allows it to be given 2—3 times daily, possibly aiding in compliance.

Although it was once an extremely useful antibiotic, the development of resistance and the availability of newer agents has made sulfamethoxazole almost obsolete as a single agent.

Today, clinical use of sulfamethoxazole occurs primarily in combination with trimethoprim, commonly known as Bactrim or Septra. Sulfamethoxazole was approved by the FDA in 1961.

In April 2000, Roche Labortatories, discontinued manufacturing of Gantanol products; there are no generic single-ingredient sulfamethoxazole products FDA-approved in the US.

Indications

  1. cervicitis
  2. chlamydia infection
  3. Chlamydia trachomatis
  4. chlamydial conjunctivitis
  5. Clostridium perfringens
  6. Clostridium tetani
  7. cystitis
  8. Enterobacter sp.
  9. Escherichia coli
  10. Haemophilus ducreyi
  11. Haemophilus influenzae (beta-lactamase negative)
  12. Haemophilus influenzae (beta-lactamase positive)
  13. Klebsiella sp.
  14. malaria
  15. Nocardia asteroides
  16. Nocardia brasiliensis
  17. nocardiosis
  18. Plasmodium falciparum
  19. proctitis
  20. Proteus mirabilis
  21. Proteus vulgaris
  22. pyelonephritis
  23. Salmonella sp.
  24. Shigella sp.
  25. Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA)
  26. Streptococcus sp.
  27. Toxoplasma gondii
  28. toxoplasmosis
  29. urethritis
  30. urinary tract infection (UTI)

Side Effects

  1. agranulocytosis
  2. anorexia
  3. aplastic anemia
  4. bullous rash
  5. crystalluria
  6. diarrhea
  7. diuresis
  8. dizziness
  9. erythema nodosum
  10. goiter
  11. headache
  12. hematuria
  13. hepatic necrosis
  14. hypoglycemia
  15. interstitial nephritis
  16. lethargy
  17. maculopapular rash
  18. nausea
  19. pancytopenia
  20. photosensitivity
  21. purpura
  22. renal tubular necrosis
  23. Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  24. thrombocytopenia
  25. toxic epidermal necrolysis
  26. urticaria
  27. vomiting

Monitoring Parameters

  • CBC
  • serum creatinine/BUN

Contraindications

  • bone marrow suppression
  • breast-feeding
  • carbonic anhydrase inhibitor hypersensitivity
  • children
  • dental disease
  • folate deficiency megaloblastic anemia
  • G6PD deficiency
  • geriatric
  • hepatic disease
  • infants
  • intramuscular injections
  • neonates
  • porphyria
  • pregnancy
  • renal impairment
  • sulfonamide hypersensitivity
  • sulfonylurea hypersensitivity
  • sunlight (UV) exposure
  • thiazide diuretic hypersensitivity

Interactions

No information is available regarding drug interactions associated with Sulfamethoxazole

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