Magnesium Salts

Magnesium Salts Brand Names

Mag-64 | Mag-G | MagGel 600 | Magonate | MagOx 400 | Mag-SR | Mag-Tab SR | Magtrate | Phillips Cramp-Free | Uro-Mag

What is Magnesium Salts

Magnesium sulfate is the most commonly used of the magnesium salts and can be administered orally or parenterally. It is used orally as a laxative and parenterally as a neuromuscular depressant or to treat hypomagnesemia.

Oral magnesium sulfate belongs to the class of saline laxatives, which are used primarily to empty the bowel before surgery or radiologic, proctoscopic, or sigmoidoscopic procedures.

Magnesium sulfate is also a useful cathartic in combination with charcoal to treat acute drug overdose because charcoal will not bind inorganic compounds like magnesium sulfate.

The primary use of parenteral magnesium sulfate is to prevent and control seizures in preeclampsia and eclampsia. Parenteral magnesium sulfate is also useful in controlling seizures due to epilepsy, glomerulonephritis, or hypothyroidism.

Parenteral magnesium may also be considered in the treatment of cardiac glycoside-induced arrhythmias.

Routine use of magnesium for cardiac arrest is not recommended. Magnesium may be considered for torsades de pointes (i.e., polymorphic ventricular tachycardia associated with a long QT interval).

Indications

  1. bowel preparation
  2. cardiac arrest
  3. cardiac glycoside-induced arrhythmias
  4. cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  5. constipation
  6. digoxin toxicity
  7. dysautonomia
  8. dyspepsia
  9. eclampsia
  10. eclampsia prophylaxis
  11. hypertension
  12. hypomagnesemia
  13. muscle spasm
  14. nephritis-associated hypertension
  15. nephritis-associated seizures
  16. nutritional supplementation
  17. persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn
  18. preeclampsia
  19. premature labor
  20. seizure prophylaxis
  21. status asthmaticus
  22. tetanus
  23. torsade de pointes
  24. ventricular fibrillation
  25. ventricular tachycardia

Elemental Magnesium Content

One (1) gram of the various magnesium salts contain the following amounts of elemental magnesium:

  • magnesium chloride: 120 mg (9.8 mEq) elemental magnesium.
  • magnesium gluconate: 54 mg (4.5 mEq) elemental magnesium.
  • magnesium lactate: 120 mg (10 mEq) elemental magnesium.
  • magnesium oxide: 603 mg (50.3 mEq) elemental magnesium.
  • magnesium sulfate: 98 mg (8.12 mEq) elemental magnesium.

Side Effects

  1. aluminum toxicity
  2. AV block
  3. bradycardia
  4. cardiac arrest
  5. diaphoresis
  6. diarrhea
  7. flushing
  8. hypermagnesemia
  9. hypocalcemia
  10. hyporeflexia
  11. hypotension
  12. hypothermia
  13. injection site reaction
  14. muscle paralysis
  15. respiratory arrest
  16. respiratory depression
  17. weakness

Monitoring Parameters

  • serum creatinine/BUN
  • serum magnesium

Contraindications

  • AV block
  • breast-feeding
  • cardiac disease
  • dehydration
  • electrolyte imbalance
  • GI obstruction
  • hypermagnesemia
  • ileus
  • pregnancy
  • renal disease
  • renal failure
  • renal impairment

Interactions

  • Abacavir; Dolutegravir; Lamivudine
  • Acetaminophen; Butalbital
  • Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine
  • Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
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  • Acetaminophen; Codeine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Doxylamine
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