Cefoxitin

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Cefoxitin Brand Name– Mefoxin

What is Cefoxitin

Cefoxitin is a parenteral cephamycin antibiotic that is used for the treatment of serious lower respiratory tract, urinary tract, intra-abdominal, gynecological, bone and joint, or skin and skin structure infections in addition to septicemia and for surgical infection prophylaxis.

Although not technically a cephalosporin, because of cefoxitin’s spectrum of activity, it is often classified as a second-generation cephalosporin.

Cefoxitin has added stability against the beta-lactamases, providing better resistance to certain gram-negative species compared to first-generation cephalosporins. Cefoxitin has also been found to be a potent inducer of beta-lactamases.

Cefoxitin was FDA-approved in 1978.

Indications

  1. bacteremia
  2. Bacteroides fragilis
  3. Bacteroides ovatus
  4. Bacteroides sp.
  5. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron
  6. bone and joint infections
  7. cervicitis
  8. Clostridium perfringens
  9. Clostridium sp.
  10. Eikenella corrodens
  11. endometritis
  12. Escherichia coli
  13. Fusobacterium sp.
  14. gonorrhea
  15. gynecologic infections
  16. Haemophilus influenzae (beta-lactamase negative)
  17. Haemophilus influenzae (beta-lactamase positive)
  18. intraabdominal abscess
  19. intraabdominal infections
  20. Klebsiella oxytoca
  21. Klebsiella pneumoniae
  22. Klebsiella sp.
  23. lower respiratory tract infections
  24. lung abscess
  25. Morganella morganii
  26. Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  27. Parabacteroides distasonis
  28. pelvic cellulitis
  29. pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  30. Peptococcus niger
  31. Peptococcus sp.
  32. Peptostreptococcus sp.
  33. peritonitis
  34. pneumonia
  35. Prevotella bivia
  36. Proteus mirabilis
  37. Proteus vulgaris
  38. Providencia rettgeri
  39. Providencia sp.
  40. Salmonella sp.
  41. Shigella sp.
  42. skin and skin structure infections
  43. Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA)
  44. Staphylococcus epidermidis
  45. Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci)
  46. Streptococcus pneumoniae
  47. Streptococcus pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococci)
  48. surgical infection prophylaxis
  49. tubo-ovarian abscess
  50. urethritis
  51. urinary tract infection (UTI)

Side Effects

  1. abdominal pain
  2. agranulocytosis
  3. anaphylactoid reactions
  4. anemia
  5. angioedema
  6. aplastic anemia
  7. azotemia
  8. bleeding
  9. candidiasis
  10. cholestasis
  11. colitis
  12. diarrhea
  13. dyspnea
  14. elevated hepatic enzymes
  15. eosinophilia
  16. erythema multiforme
  17. exfoliative dermatitis
  18. fever
  19. flushing
  20. hemolytic anemia
  21. hyperbilirubinemia
  22. hypotension
  23. injection site reaction
  24. interstitial nephritis
  25. jaundice
  26. leukopenia
  27. myasthenia
  28. nausea
  29. neutropenia
  30. pancytopenia
  31. phlebitis
  32. pruritus
  33. pseudomembranous colitis
  34. rash
  35. renal failure (unspecified)
  36. seizures
  37. serum sickness
  38. Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  39. superinfection
  40. thrombocytopenia
  41. toxic epidermal necrolysis
  42. urticaria
  43. vaginitis
  44. vomiting

Monitoring Parameters

  • serum creatinine/BUN

Contraindications

  • breast-feeding
  • carbapenem hypersensitivity
  • cephalosporin hypersensitivity
  • coagulopathy
  • colitis
  • diarrhea
  • geriatric
  • GI disease
  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • laboratory test interference
  • myasthenia gravis
  • penicillin hypersensitivity
  • pregnancy
  • pseudomembranous colitis
  • renal disease
  • renal failure
  • renal impairment
  • sexually transmitted disease
  • ulcerative colitis
  • viral infection
  • vitamin K deficiency

Interactions

  • Amikacin
  • Aminoglycosides
  • Gentamicin
  • Kanamycin
  • Loop diuretics
  • Oral Contraceptives
  • Paromomycin
  • Plazomicin
  • Sodium picosulfate; Magnesium oxide; Anhydrous citric acid
  • Streptomycin
  • Tobramycin
  • Warfarin

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