Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid Brand Names

  • Amoclan
  • Augmentin
  • Augmentin ES
  • Augmentin XR

What is Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid is a combination drug marketed under the trade name Augmentin.

Clavulanic acid is a beta-lactamase inhibitor that possesses weak antibacterial activity. Combination with clavulanic acid reestablishes amoxicillin’s activity against beta-lactamase-producing bacteria.

This makes Augmentin an excellent drug for treating infections due to beta-lactamase-producing H. influenzae and penicillinase-producing anaerobes.

The drug is commonly used to treat infections such as acute otitis media, acute sinusitis, acute bacterial cystitis, uncomplicated gonorrhea, and chancroid caused by susceptible organisms.

Augmentin was approved by the FDA in August 1984 and is off patent as of December 2002.

An extended release dosage form, Augmentin XR, was approved in September 2002 for the treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis or community-acquired pneumonia.

Indications

  1. Actinomyces sp.
  2. actinomycotic mycetoma
  3. Bacillus anthracis
  4. bacterial colonization eradication
  5. Bacteroides fragilis
  6. Bacteroides sp.
  7. Bifidobacterium sp.
  8. Bordetella pertussis
  9. Borrelia burgdorferi
  10. Brucella sp.
  11. Burkholderia pseudomallei
  12. Clostridium perfringens
  13. Clostridium tetani
  14. community-acquired pneumonia
  15. Corynebacterium diphtheriae
  16. cystitis
  17. dental infection
  18. dentoalveolar infection
  19. Eikenella corrodens
  20. Enterobacter sp.
  21. Enterococcus faecalis
  22. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
  23. Escherichia coli
  24. Eubacterium sp.
  25. febrile neutropenia
  26. Fusobacterium nucleatum
  27. Fusobacterium sp.
  28. Haemophilus ducreyi
  29. Haemophilus influenzae (beta-lactamase negative)
  30. Haemophilus influenzae (beta-lactamase positive)
  31. Haemophilus parainfluenzae
  32. Helicobacter pylori
  33. impetigo
  34. Klebsiella pneumoniae
  35. Klebsiella sp.
  36. Lactobacillus sp.
  37. Listeria monocytogenes
  38. lower respiratory tract infections
  39. melioidosis
  40. Moraxella catarrhalis
  41. Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  42. Neisseria meningitidis
  43. Nocardia brasiliensis
  44. otitis media
  45. Peptococcus sp.
  46. Peptostreptococcus magnus
  47. Peptostreptococcus micros
  48. Peptostreptococcus sp.
  49. pericoronitis
  50. periodontitis
  51. pneumonia
  52. Prevotella melaninogenica
  53. Propionibacterium sp.
  54. Proteus mirabilis
  55. Salmonella enteritidis
  56. Salmonella sp.
  57. Salmonella typhi
  58. Shigella sp.
  59. sinusitis
  60. skin and skin structure infections
  61. Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA)
  62. Staphylococcus epidermidis
  63. Staphylococcus saprophyticus
  64. Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci)
  65. Streptococcus dysgalactiae
  66. Streptococcus pneumoniae
  67. Streptococcus pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococci)
  68. Treponema pallidum
  69. urinary tract infection (UTI)
  70. Vibrio cholerae
  71. Viridans streptococci

Side Effects

  1. abdominal pain
  2. acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP)
  3. agitation
  4. agranulocytosis
  5. anaphylactic shock
  6. anemia
  7. angioedema
  8. anxiety
  9. arthralgia
  10. bullous rash
  11. candidiasis
  12. cholestasis
  13. confusion
  14. crystalluria
  15. diaper dermatitis
  16. diarrhea
  17. dizziness
  18. dyspepsia
  19. elevated hepatic enzymes
  20. enterocolitis
  21. eosinophilia
  22. erythema multiforme
  23. exfoliative dermatitis
  24. fever
  25. gastritis
  26. glossitis
  27. headache
  28. hematuria
  29. hemolytic anemia
  30. hepatitis
  31. hyperbilirubinemia
  32. insomnia
  33. interstitial nephritis
  34. jaundice
  35. leukopenia
  36. maculopapular rash
  37. myalgia
  38. nausea
  39. nephrotic syndrome
  40. oliguria
  41. platelet dysfunction
  42. prolonged bleeding time
  43. pruritus
  44. pseudomembranous colitis
  45. purpura
  46. rash
  47. renal failure (unspecified)
  48. seizures
  49. serum sickness
  50. Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  51. stomatitis
  52. superinfection
  53. thrombocytopenia
  54. thrombocytosis
  55. thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)
  56. tongue discoloration
  57. tooth discoloration
  58. toxic epidermal necrolysis
  59. urticaria
  60. vaginitis
  61. vasculitis
  62. vomiting

Monitoring Parameters

  • LFTs
  • serum creatinine/BUN

Contraindications

  • asthma
  • breast-feeding
  • carbapenem hypersensitivity
  • cephalosporin hypersensitivity
  • children
  • cholestasis
  • colitis
  • dialysis
  • diarrhea
  • eczema
  • geriatric
  • GI disease
  • hepatic disease
  • infants
  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • jaundice
  • labor
  • mononucleosis
  • neonates
  • obstetric delivery
  • penicillin hypersensitivity
  • phenylketonuria
  • pregnancy
  • pseudomembranous colitis
  • renal disease
  • renal failure
  • renal impairment
  • ulcerative colitis
  • urticaria

Interactions

  • Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine
  • Allopurinol
  • Amiloride
  • Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Aspirin, ASA
  • Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol
  • Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Citric Acid; Sodium Bicarbonate
  • Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole
  • Aspirin, ASA; Omeprazole
  • Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone
  • Aspirin, ASA; Pravastatin
  • Choline Salicylate; Magnesium Salicylate
  • Colchicine; Probenecid
  • Dichlorphenamide
  • Dienogest; Estradiol valerate
  • Digoxin
  • Drospirenone
  • Drospirenone; Estradiol
  • Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Levomefolate
  • Elagolix; Estradiol; Norethindrone acetate
  • Erythromycin; Sulfisoxazole
  • Estradiol; Levonorgestrel
  • Estradiol; Norethindrone
  • Estradiol; Norgestimate
  • Ethacrynic Acid
  • Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Desogestrel
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Ethynodiol Diacetate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Etonogestrel
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Ferrous bisglycinate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Folic Acid; Levomefolate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norelgestromin
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate; Ferrous fumarate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone; Ferrous fumarate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestimate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestrel
  • Furosemide
  • Indomethacin
  • Lesinurad; Allopurinol
  • Leuprolide; Norethindrone
  • Levonorgestrel
  • Magnesium Salicylate
  • Mestranol; Norethindrone
  • Methotrexate
  • Mycophenolate
  • Norethindrone
  • Norgestrel
  • Oral Contraceptives
  • Probenecid
  • Pyrimethamine; Sulfadoxine
  • Salsalate
  • Segesterone Acetate; Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Sodium Benzoate; Sodium Phenylacetate
  • Sodium picosulfate; Magnesium oxide; Anhydrous citric acid
  • Sulfadiazine
  • Sulfamethoxazole; Trimethoprim, SMX-TMP, Cotrimoxazole
  • Sulfasalazine
  • Sulfisoxazole
  • Sulfonamides
  • Tetracyclines
  • Typhoid Vaccine
  • Warfarin
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