Amphetamine

Amphetamine Brand Names

Adzenys | Adzenys XR | Dyanavel XR | Evekeo

What is Amphetamine

Amphetamine sulfate is an orally administered central nervous system (CNS) stimulant used primarily to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, the immediate-release tablet also carries indications for narcolepsy and exogenous obesity.

Stimulants, such as amphetamine, are highly effective in the treatment of ADHD and are considered first-line therapy.

Amphetamine- and methylphenidate-containing products are considered equally effective in the treatment of ADHD; patients who do not respond to one may respond to the other.

The most common adverse effects associated with amphetamine use include anorexia, abdominal pain, irritability, restlessness, insomnia, emotional lability, and tachycardia.

Stimulants can induce or exacerbate psychiatric symptoms and should be used with caution in patients with a history of mania, psychosis, or substance abuse. Due to the possibility of new or worsening adverse psychiatric events (e.g., psychosis, aggression), close monitoring is recommended in patients with pre-existing psychosis or bipolar disorder.

Stimulants have also been associated with sudden death in patients with structural cardiac abnormalities; patients with structural heart defects, cardiomyopathy, or heart-rhythm disturbances may be at risk for adverse cardiac events.

The American Heart Association recommends careful screening of all children and adolescents prior to initiating pharmacologic therapy for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including a detailed patient and family history and physical examination.

Amphetamines are not agents of choice for weight loss in obese patients. According to the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology (AACE/ACE) Obesity Clinical Practice Guidelines, short-term pharmacotherapy, such as with the amphetamine anorectics, has not been shown to produce longer-term health benefits in obese and overweight patients and cannot be generally recommended and weight loss with these agents is usually not sustained.

Amphetamines should not be used for weight management long-term.

Indications

  1. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  2. narcolepsy
  3. obesity

Side Effects

  1. abdominal pain
  2. agitation
  3. alopecia
  4. anaphylactoid reactions
  5. angioedema
  6. anorexia
  7. anxiety
  8. arrhythmia exacerbation
  9. asthenia
  10. blurred vision
  11. bowel necrosis
  12. bradycardia
  13. cardiomyopathy
  14. chest pain (unspecified)
  15. confusion
  16. constipation
  17. delirium
  18. depression
  19. diaphoresis
  20. diarrhea
  21. dizziness
  22. drowsiness
  23. dysgeusia
  24. dyskinesia
  25. dysmenorrhea
  26. dyspepsia
  27. dysphemia
  28. dysphoria
  29. dyspnea
  30. emotional lability
  31. epistaxis
  32. euphoria
  33. fatigue
  34. fever
  35. formication
  36. growth inhibition
  37. hallucinations
  38. headache
  39. hostility
  40. hyperhidrosis
  41. hyperreflexia
  42. hypertension
  43. hyperthermia
  44. hypotension
  45. impotence (erectile dysfunction)
  46. infection
  47. insomnia
  48. irritability
  49. libido decrease
  50. libido increase
  51. mania
  52. mydriasis
  53. myocardial infarction
  54. nausea
  55. ocular hypertension
  56. palpitations
  57. paranoia
  58. paresthesias
  59. peripheral vasoconstriction
  60. photosensitivity
  61. physiological dependence
  62. priapism
  63. psychological dependence
  64. psychosis
  65. rash
  66. renal failure (unspecified)
  67. restlessness
  68. rhabdomyolysis
  69. rhinitis
  70. seizures
  71. serotonin syndrome
  72. sinus tachycardia
  73. skin ulcer
  74. Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  75. stroke
  76. suicidal ideation
  77. supranormalization
  78. syncope
  79. tachypnea
  80. teeth grinding (bruxism)
  81. tolerance
  82. Tourette’s syndrome
  83. toxic epidermal necrolysis
  84. tremor
  85. urticaria
  86. visual impairment
  87. vomiting
  88. weight loss
  89. withdrawal
  90. xerostomia

Monitoring Parameters

  • blood pressure
  • growth rate
  • heart rate
  • weight

Contraindications

  • abrupt discontinuation
  • acute myocardial infarction
  • alcoholism
  • anorexia nervosa
  • aortic stenosis
  • arteriosclerosis
  • bipolar disorder
  • breast-feeding
  • bulimia nervosa
  • cardiac arrhythmias
  • cardiac disease
  • cardiomyopathy
  • cerebrovascular disease
  • children
  • congenital heart disease
  • coronary artery disease
  • depression
  • driving or operating machinery
  • ethanol ingestion
  • geriatric
  • glaucoma
  • growth inhibition
  • heart failure
  • hepatic disease
  • hypercortisolism
  • hypertension
  • hyperthyroidism
  • infants
  • mania
  • MAOI therapy
  • neonates
  • obesity treatment
  • peripheral vascular disease
  • pregnancy
  • prosthetic heart valves
  • psychosis
  • radiographic contrast administration
  • Raynaud’s phenomenon
  • renal impairment
  • schizophrenia
  • seizure disorder
  • seizures
  • stroke
  • substance abuse
  • suicidal ideation
  • surgery
  • tachycardia
  • thyrotoxicosis
  • tics
  • Tourette’s syndrome
  • ventricular arrhythmias
  • ventricular dysfunction
  • visual disturbance

Interactions

  • Acarbose
  • Acebutolol
  • Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine
  • Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine
  • Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide
  • Acetaminophen; Tramadol
  • Acetazolamide
  • Aclidinium; Formoterol
  • Albiglutide
  • Albuterol
  • Albuterol; Ipratropium
  • Alfentanil
  • Aliskiren; Amlodipine
  • Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Aliskiren; Valsartan
  • Alkalinizing Agents
  • Alogliptin; Metformin
  • Alogliptin; Pioglitazone
  • Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors
  • Aluminum Hydroxide
  • Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Carbonate
  • Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Hydroxide
  • Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Hydroxide; Simethicone
  • Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Trisilicate
  • Amantadine
  • Ambrisentan
  • Amifampridine
  • Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Amlodipine
  • Amlodipine; Atorvastatin
  • Amlodipine; Benazepril
  • Amlodipine; Celecoxib
  • Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan
  • Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan
  • Amlodipine; Olmesartan
  • Amlodipine; Telmisartan
  • Amlodipine; Valsartan
  • Ammonium Chloride
  • Amoxapine
  • Angiotensin II receptor antagonists
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
  • Antacids
  • Arformoterol
  • Armodafinil
  • Ascorbic Acid, Vitamin C
  • Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Citric Acid; Sodium Bicarbonate
  • Atenolol
  • Atenolol; Chlorthalidone
  • Atomoxetine
  • Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate
  • Atropine; Hyoscyamine; Phenobarbital; Scopolamine
  • Azilsartan
  • Azilsartan; Chlorthalidone
  • Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital
  • Benazepril
  • Benazepril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol
  • Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate
  • Beta-blockers
  • Betaxolol
  • Bethanechol
  • Bisoprolol
  • Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Bosentan
  • Bretylium
  • Brimonidine; Timolol
  • Bromocriptine
  • Budesonide; Formoterol
  • Bupropion
  • Bupropion; Naltrexone
  • Buspirone
  • Caffeine
  • Caffeine; Ergotamine
  • Calcium Carbonate
  • Calcium Carbonate; Magnesium Hydroxide
  • Calcium Carbonate; Risedronate
  • Calcium Carbonate; Simethicone
  • Calcium-channel blockers
  • Canagliflozin
  • Canagliflozin; Metformin
  • Candesartan
  • Candesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Captopril
  • Captopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Carbamazepine
  • Carbidopa; Levodopa
  • Carbidopa; Levodopa; Entacapone
  • Cardiac glycosides
  • Carteolol
  • Carvedilol
  • Chlorothiazide
  • Chlorthalidone
  • Chlorthalidone; Clonidine
  • Cimetidine
  • Cinacalcet
  • Citalopram
  • Citric Acid; Potassium Citrate
  • Citric Acid; Potassium Citrate; Sodium Citrate
  • Citric Acid; Sodium Citrate
  • Clevidipine
  • Clobazam
  • Clonazepam
  • Clonidine
  • Cocaine
  • Colchicine
  • Colchicine; Probenecid
  • Dacomitinib
  • Dapagliflozin
  • Dapagliflozin; Metformin
  • Dapagliflozin; Saxagliptin
  • Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir
  • Delavirdine
  • Desvenlafaxine
  • Dextromethorphan; Quinidine
  • Diazepam
  • Digitoxin
  • Digoxin
  • Dihydroergotamine
  • Diltiazem
  • Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors
  • Dorzolamide; Timolol
  • Doxazosin
  • Dronabinol
  • Dulaglutide
  • Duloxetine
  • Dyphylline
  • Dyphylline; Guaifenesin
  • Empagliflozin
  • Empagliflozin; Linagliptin
  • Empagliflozin; Linagliptin; Metformin
  • Empagliflozin; Metformin
  • Enalapril, Enalaprilat
  • Enalapril; Felodipine
  • Enalapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Enflurane
  • Eplerenone
  • Epoprostenol
  • Eprosartan
  • Eprosartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Ergoloid Mesylates
  • Ergonovine
  • Ergot alkaloids
  • Ergotamine
  • Ertugliflozin
  • Ertugliflozin; Metformin
  • Ertugliflozin; Sitagliptin
  • Escitalopram
  • Esketamine
  • Eslicarbazepine
  • Esmolol
  • Ethanol
  • Ethotoin
  • Etomidate
  • Exenatide
  • Ezogabine
  • Famotidine
  • Famotidine; Ibuprofen
  • Felbamate
  • Felodipine
  • Fentanyl
  • Fluoxetine
  • Fluoxetine; Olanzapine
  • Fluticasone; Salmeterol
  • Fluticasone; Umeclidinium; Vilanterol
  • Fluticasone; Vilanterol
  • Fluvoxamine
  • food
  • Formoterol
  • Formoterol; Mometasone
  • Fosinopril
  • Fosinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Fosphenytoin
  • Gabapentin
  • Glimepiride; Pioglitazone
  • Glimepiride; Rosiglitazone
  • Glipizide; Metformin
  • Glyburide; Metformin
  • Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol
  • Green Tea
  • Guanabenz
  • Guanfacine
  • H2-blockers
  • Halothane
  • Hydantoins
  • Hydralazine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Irbesartan
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Lisinopril
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Losartan
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Methyldopa
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Metoprolol
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Moexipril
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Propranolol
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Quinapril
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Spironolactone
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Telmisartan
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Triamterene
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan
  • Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate
  • Ibritumomab Tiuxetan
  • Iloprost
  • Incretin Mimetics
  • Indacaterol
  • Indacaterol; Glycopyrrolate
  • Indapamide
  • Insulin Degludec; Liraglutide
  • Insulin Glargine; Lixisenatide
  • Insulins
  • Iobenguane I 131
  • Irbesartan
  • Isocarboxazid
  • Isoflurane
  • Isradipine
  • Ketamine
  • Labetalol
  • Lacosamide
  • Lamotrigine
  • Lasmiditan
  • Levalbuterol
  • Levetiracetam
  • Levobetaxolol
  • Levobunolol
  • Levodopa
  • Levomilnacipran
  • Levothyroxine
  • Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Porcine)
  • Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Synthetic)
  • Linagliptin; Metformin
  • Linezolid
  • Liothyronine
  • Liraglutide
  • Lisinopril
  • Lithium
  • Lixisenatide
  • Loop diuretics
  • Lopinavir; Ritonavir
  • Lorazepam
  • Lorcaserin
  • Losartan
  • Loxapine
  • Lurasidone
  • Macitentan
  • Magnesium Hydroxide
  • Maprotiline
  • Mecamylamine
  • Meglitinides
  • Meperidine
  • Meperidine; Promethazine
  • Mephobarbital
  • Metaproterenol
  • Metformin
  • Metformin; Pioglitazone
  • Metformin; Repaglinide
  • Metformin; Rosiglitazone
  • Metformin; Saxagliptin
  • Metformin; Sitagliptin
  • Methazolamide
  • Methenamine
  • Methenamine; Sodium Acid Phosphate
  • Methenamine; Sodium Acid Phosphate; Methylene Blue; Hyoscyamine
  • Methohexital
  • Methyclothiazide
  • Methyldopa
  • Methylene Blue
  • Methylergonovine
  • Methysergide
  • Metolazone
  • Metoprolol
  • Miglitol
  • Milnacipran
  • Mirtazapine
  • Modafinil
  • Moexipril
  • Molindone
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
  • Nabilone
  • Nadolol
  • Nebivolol
  • Nebivolol; Valsartan
  • Nefazodone
  • Nicardipine
  • Nicotine
  • Nifedipine
  • Nimodipine
  • Nisoldipine
  • Nitrates
  • Nizatidine
  • Non-Ionic Contrast Media
  • Olmesartan
  • Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir
  • Omeprazole; Sodium Bicarbonate
  • Ozanimod
  • Paroxetine
  • Penbutolol
  • Pentobarbital
  • Perampanel
  • Pergolide
  • Perindopril
  • Perindopril; Amlodipine
  • Phenelzine
  • Phenobarbital
  • Phenoxybenzamine
  • Phentermine
  • Phentermine; Topiramate
  • Phentolamine
  • Phenytoin
  • Pindolol
  • Pioglitazone
  • Pirbuterol
  • Potassium Bicarbonate
  • Potassium Citrate
  • Potassium-sparing diuretics
  • Pramlintide
  • Prazosin
  • Pregabalin
  • Primidone
  • Procarbazine
  • Propofol
  • Propranolol
  • Proton pump inhibitors
  • Quinapril
  • Quinidine
  • Racepinephrine
  • Ramipril
  • Ranitidine
  • Rasagiline
  • Remifentanil
  • Reserpine
  • Riociguat
  • Ritonavir
  • Rosiglitazone
  • Rufinamide
  • Sacubitril; Valsartan
  • Safinamide
  • Salmeterol
  • Sedating H1-blockers
  • Selegiline
  • Selexipag
  • Semaglutide
  • Serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors
  • Serotonin-Receptor Agonists
  • Sertraline
  • Sevoflurane
  • SGLT2 Inhibitors
  • Sibutramine
  • Sodium Bicarbonate
  • Sodium Lactate
  • Sodium Oxybate
  • Solriamfetol
  • Sotalol
  • St. John’s Wort, Hypericum perforatum
  • Succinimides
  • Sufentanil
  • Sulfonylureas
  • Tedizolid
  • Telmisartan
  • Terazosin
  • Terbutaline
  • Theophylline, Aminophylline
  • Thiazide diuretics
  • Thiazolidinediones
  • Thiopental
  • Thiothixene
  • Thyroid hormones
  • Tiagabine
  • Timolol
  • Tipranavir
  • Topiramate
  • Tramadol
  • Trandolapril
  • Trandolapril; Verapamil
  • Tranylcypromine
  • Trazodone
  • Treprostinil
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Tromethamine
  • Umeclidinium; Vilanterol
  • Valproic Acid, Divalproex Sodium
  • Valsartan
  • Vasodilators
  • Venlafaxine
  • Verapamil
  • Vigabatrin
  • Vilazodone
  • Vortioxetine
  • Yohimbine
  • Ziprasidone
  • Zonisamide
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