What is the role of EUS in the endoscopic surveillance of individuals with a personal history of rectal cancer?
After surgical resection, the local recurrence rate for advanced rectal cancer is approximately 25%, and the risk of recurrence is greatest in the first 2 years after surgery. EUS may be used to accurately detect recurrent rectal cancer and provide pathologic confirmation via FNA. The optimal interval for performing EUS following surgical resection has not been established. Currently, rectal EUS is recommended every 6 months for the first 2 years after low anterior resection or transanal excision to screen for recurrent rectal cancer.