Rectal Cancer Staging

What is the best way to stage rectal cancer? 

It has been said that an educated finger is the best instrument; however, the overall accuracy of staging depends on the information desired and the modality chosen.

Staging guidelines are outlined in the below table; however, operator experience and judgment remain invaluable.

Estimated Accuracy of Rectal Cancer Staging Modalities

Endoscopic Ultrasound (u)Magnetic Resonance ImagingComputed Tomography
T stage85%80%65%
N stage75%60%55%

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