How is typhlitis diagnosed?
CT is the examination of choice for the diagnosis of typhlitis given the increased risk of bowel perforation through endoscopy or contrast enema examination. This diagnosis should be suggested when a neutropenic patient presents with wall thickening involving the terminal ileum, cecum, and ascending colon. Submucosal edema may be present, seen as low attenuation in the bowel wall, and fat stranding of the adjacent mesenteric fat due to edema and/or inflammation is common. In addition to diagnosis, CT is further useful in evaluating treatment response and detecting complications requiring surgery such as pneumatosis, bowel perforation, and pericolic fluid collections