What is fibrosing mediastinitis?
Fibrosing mediastinitis is an uncommon benign disorder characterized by proliferation of dense mediastinal fibrous tissue. It typically occurs in young patients who present with symptoms and signs owing to obstruction of vital mediastinal structures. Fibrosing mediastinitis is sometimes related to histoplasmosis infection but is often idiopathic in etiology. On imaging, one often sees nonspecific mediastinal widening, sometimes with hilar involvement, by focal or diffuse confluent soft tissue that is commonly calcified. Encasement, narrowing, or occlusion of the mediastinal airway or vascular structures is also often seen.