Differential diagnosis of major causes of pleural effusion

Differential diagnosis of major causes of pleural effusion

Differential Diagnosis of Pleural Effusion

Transudative

  • Congestive heart failure ** Indicates most common causes.
  • Cirrhosis *
  • Renal failure
  • Hypoalbuminemia

Exudative

  • Malignancy
    • Metastases *
    • Malignant pleural mesothelioma
    • Lymphoma
  • Inflammatory disease
    • Infection (bacterial, mycobacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic)
      • • Empyema
    • Parapneumonic effusion *
    • Collagen vascular disease: systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis
  • Trauma
  • Thoracic or abdominal surgery *
  • Acute pulmonary embolism *
  • Abdominopelvic pathologic conditions *
    • Ascites
    • Pancreatitis
    • Peritonitis
    • Other disease conditions of the abdomen or pelvis
    • Chylothorax
    • Hemothorax