major mechanisms of pleural effusion formation
- • Increased hydrostatic pressure in the microvascular circulation (e.g., congestive heart failure).
- • Decreased oncotic pressure in the microvascular circulation (e.g., hypoalbuminemia).
- • Decreased pressure in the pleural space (e.g., with pulmonary atelectasis or restrictive lung disease).
- • Increased permeability of the microvascular circulation (e.g., from pleural inflammation or neoplasm).
- • Impaired lymphatic drainage from the pleural space caused by blockage in the lymphatic system.
- • Transit of fluid from the peritoneal cavity through the diaphragm to the pleural space.