major mechanisms of pleural effusion formation

major mechanisms of pleural effusion formation

  • • Increased hydrostatic pressure in the microvascular circulation (e.g., congestive heart failure).
  • • Decreased oncotic pressure in the microvascular circulation (e.g., hypoalbuminemia).
  • • Decreased pressure in the pleural space (e.g., with pulmonary atelectasis or restrictive lung disease).
  • • Increased permeability of the microvascular circulation (e.g., from pleural inflammation or neoplasm).
  • • Impaired lymphatic drainage from the pleural space caused by blockage in the lymphatic system.
  • • Transit of fluid from the peritoneal cavity through the diaphragm to the pleural space.
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