Rifabutin

What is Rifabutin

Rifabutin is an oral antimycobacterial agent. A derivative of rifamycin, rifabutin has been shown to be effective as a prophylactic agent against disseminated M. avium complex in patients with AIDS.

Rifabutin is recommended as an alternative to clarithromycin or azithromycin for primary Mycobacterium avium complex prophylaxis in HIV-infected patients.

Rifabutin is also considered an alternative to rifampin for tuberculosis and tuberculosis prophylaxis in HIV-infected patients when the organism is likely to be resistant to isoniazid.

Rifabutin was approved by the FDA as a priority drug in December 1992.

Brand Name

Mycobutin

Indications

  • Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication
  • Mycobacterium avium
  • Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) prophylaxis
  • Mycobacterium avium complex infection
  • Mycobacterium intracellulare
  • Mycobacterium leprae
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • tuberculosis infection
  • tuberculosis prophylaxis

Side Effects

  1. abdominal pain
  2. agranulocytosis
  3. anemia
  4. anorexia
  5. aphasia
  6. arthralgia
  7. asthenia
  8. bronchospasm
  9. chest pain (unspecified)
  10. chills
  11. confusion
  12. conjunctivitis
  13. contact lens discoloration
  14. cough
  15. diarrhea
  16. dizziness
  17. dysgeusia
  18. dyspepsia
  19. dyspnea
  20. elevated hepatic enzymes
  21. eosinophilia
  22. eructation
  23. fatigue
  24. fever
  25. flatulence
  26. headache
  27. hemolysis
  28. hepatitis
  29. hypotension
  30. insomnia
  31. jaundice
  32. leukopenia
  33. lymphopenia
  34. musculoskeletal pain
  35. myalgia
  36. nausea
  37. neutropenia
  38. ocular pain
  39. palpitations
  40. pancytopenia
  41. paresthesias
  42. pseudomembranous colitis
  43. rash
  44. seizures
  45. skin discoloration
  46. ST-T wave changes
  47. superinfection
  48. syncope
  49. thrombocytopenia
  50. thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)
  51. urine discoloration
  52. urticaria
  53. uveitis
  54. visual impairment
  55. vomiting
  56. weakness

Monitoring Parameters

  • CBC

Contraindications

  • acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
  • breast-feeding
  • children
  • colitis
  • contact lenses
  • diarrhea
  • geriatric
  • GI disease
  • hepatotoxicity
  • human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • laboratory test interference
  • pregnancy
  • pseudomembranous colitis
  • renal disease
  • renal failure
  • renal impairment
  • rifamycin hypersensitivity
  • ulcerative colitis
  • viral infection

Interactions

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