Levobunolol

Levobunolol Brand Names- Ak-Beta | Betagan

What is Levobunolol

Levobunolol is an ophthalmic beta-blocker. It is ‘nonselective’ (i.e., equally effective at beta-1 and beta-2 receptor sites).

Levobunolol is the levorotatory isomer of bunolol, which is structurally similar to propranolol. Levobunolol has a 60-fold and 3-fold greater potency compared with the dextrorotatory isomer and the racemic compound, respectively.

Only the levo isomer is used clinically as an ophthalmic agent for the treatment of increased IOP due to open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

Levobunolol was approved by the FDA in December 1985.

Indications

  • glaucoma
  • ocular hypertension

For the treatment of chronic open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

Side Effects

  1. alopecia
  2. anaphylactoid reactions
  3. arrhythmia exacerbation
  4. asthenia
  5. ataxia
  6. AV block
  7. blepharitis
  8. bradycardia
  9. bronchospasm
  10. cardiac arrest
  11. chest pain (unspecified)
  12. confusion
  13. conjunctivitis
  14. depression
  15. diarrhea
  16. diplopia
  17. dizziness
  18. dyspnea
  19. foreign body sensation
  20. headache
  21. heart failure
  22. hypotension
  23. impotence (erectile dysfunction)
  24. keratitis
  25. lethargy
  26. myasthenia
  27. nasal congestion
  28. nausea
  29. ocular irritation
  30. palpitations
  31. paresthesias
  32. pruritus
  33. ptosis
  34. rash
  35. respiratory arrest
  36. Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  37. stroke
  38. syncope
  39. urticaria
  40. uveitis
  41. visual impairment
  42. weakness

Monitoring Parameters

  • laboratory monitoring not necessary

Contraindications

  • acute bronchospasm
  • asthma
  • AV block
  • bradycardia
  • breast-feeding
  • bronchitis
  • cardiac disease
  • cardiogenic shock
  • cerebrovascular disease
  • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • closed-angle glaucoma
  • contact lenses
  • coronary artery disease
  • diabetes mellitus
  • emphysema
  • geriatric
  • heart failure
  • hepatic disease
  • hyperthyroidism
  • hypotension
  • myasthenia gravis
  • peripheral vascular disease
  • pheochromocytoma
  • pregnancy
  • Raynaud’s phenomenon
  • sick sinus syndrome
  • sulfite hypersensitivity
  • surgery
  • thyroid disease
  • thyrotoxicosis
  • vasospastic angina
  • ventricular dysfunction

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