Amoxicillin

Amoxicillin Brand Names

Amoxil | Dispermox | Moxatag | Moxilin | Sumox | Trimox

What is Amoxicillin

Amoxicillin is an oral semisynthetic aminopenicillin similar to ampicillin. The aminopenicillins are not stable to beta-lactamases of either gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria.

Amoxicillin is more stable to gastric acid than is penicillin and more bioavailable than oral ampicillin.

Because of greater bioavailability, amoxicillin is associated with a lower incidence of diarrhea versus orally-administered ampicillin.

Like ampicillin, amoxicillin has a broader spectrum of activity than penicillin, although the carboxy- and ureidopenicillins are much more active against gram-negative rods.

Amoxicillin is commonly used to treat infections such as otitis media, bronchitis, sinusitis, and bacterial cystitis caused by susceptible organisms.

To increase the efficacy of amoxicillin against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae in otitis or respiratory infections, higher dosage regimens have been recommended.

Amoxicillin is routinely used for endocarditis prophylaxis. Amoxicillin is also used in various regimens for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection (e.g., see Prevpac(R) monograph).

Due to the increasing prevalence of resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, aminopenicillins are no longer recommended for the treatment of gonorrhea. Amoxicillin was approved by the FDA in 1974.

DisperMox™ (amoxicillin tablets for oral suspension) was approved August 11, 2003.

Amoxicillin extended-release (Moxatag™) 775 mg tablets were FDA-pproved January 2008 for treating adults and adolescents with tonsillitis and/or pharyngitis due to Streptococcus pyogenes.

Indications

  1. Actinomyces sp.
  2. anthrax
  3. anthrax prophylaxis
  4. Bacillus anthracis
  5. Bifidobacterium sp.
  6. Bordetella pertussis
  7. Borrelia burgdorferi
  8. Brucella sp.
  9. cellulitis
  10. cervicitis
  11. chlamydia infection
  12. Clostridium perfringens
  13. Clostridium tetani
  14. community-acquired pneumonia
  15. Corynebacterium diphtheriae
  16. cystitis
  17. dental abscess (apical)
  18. dental abscess (periapical)
  19. dental infection
  20. dentoalveolar infection
  21. duodenal ulcer
  22. dyspepsia
  23. Eikenella corrodens
  24. endocarditis prophylaxis
  25. Enterococcus faecalis
  26. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
  27. erythema migrans
  28. Escherichia coli
  29. Eubacterium sp.
  30. gastric ulcer
  31. Haemophilus influenzae (beta-lactamase negative)
  32. Helicobacter pylori
  33. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication
  34. Lactobacillus sp.
  35. Listeria monocytogenes
  36. lower respiratory tract infections
  37. Lyme disease
  38. Neisseria meningitidis
  39. otitis media
  40. Peptococcus sp.
  41. Peptostreptococcus sp.
  42. periodontitis
  43. pharyngitis
  44. pneumonia
  45. preterm premature rupture of membranes
  46. Prevotella melaninogenica
  47. Propionibacterium sp.
  48. Proteus mirabilis
  49. rheumatic fever prophylaxis
  50. Salmonella enteritidis
  51. Salmonella sp.
  52. Salmonella typhi
  53. Shigella sp.
  54. sinusitis
  55. skin and skin structure infections
  56. Staphylococcus sp.
  57. Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci)
  58. Streptococcus dysgalactiae
  59. Streptococcus pneumoniae
  60. Streptococcus pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococci)
  61. tonsillitis
  62. Treponema pallidum
  63. typhoid fever
  64. upper respiratory tract infections
  65. urethritis
  66. urinary tract infection (UTI)
  67. urinary tract infection (UTI) prophylaxis
  68. Vibrio cholerae
  69. Viridans streptococci

Side Effects

  1. abdominal pain
  2. acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP)
  3. agitation
  4. agranulocytosis
  5. anaphylactic shock
  6. anaphylactoid reactions
  7. anemia
  8. angioedema
  9. anxiety
  10. bullous rash
  11. candidiasis
  12. cholestasis
  13. colitis
  14. confusion
  15. contact dermatitis
  16. crystalluria
  17. dental fluorosis
  18. diarrhea
  19. dizziness
  20. dysgeusia
  21. dysphagia
  22. elevated hepatic enzymes
  23. eosinophilia
  24. erythema multiforme
  25. esophagitis
  26. exfoliative dermatitis
  27. headache
  28. hemolytic anemia
  29. hepatitis
  30. insomnia
  31. Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction
  32. jaundice
  33. leukopenia
  34. maculopapular rash
  35. nausea
  36. odynophagia
  37. platelet dysfunction
  38. prolonged bleeding time
  39. pseudomembranous colitis
  40. rash
  41. seizures
  42. serum sickness
  43. Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  44. superinfection
  45. thrombocytopenia
  46. thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)
  47. tongue discoloration
  48. tooth discoloration
  49. toxic epidermal necrolysis
  50. urticaria
  51. vasculitis
  52. vomiting

Monitoring Parameters

  • serum creatinine/BUN

Contraindications

  • asthma
  • breast-feeding
  • carbapenem hypersensitivity
  • cephalosporin hypersensitivity
  • children
  • colitis
  • dialysis
  • diarrhea
  • eczema
  • geriatric
  • GI disease
  • infants
  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • laboratory test interference
  • mononucleosis
  • neonates
  • penicillin hypersensitivity
  • phenylketonuria
  • pregnancy
  • premature neonates
  • pseudomembranous colitis
  • renal failure
  • renal impairment
  • sexually transmitted disease
  • ulcerative colitis
  • urticaria

Interactions

  • Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine
  • Allopurinol
  • Amiloride
  • Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Aspirin, ASA
  • Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol
  • Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Citric Acid; Sodium Bicarbonate
  • Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole
  • Aspirin, ASA; Omeprazole
  • Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone
  • Aspirin, ASA; Pravastatin
  • Choline Salicylate; Magnesium Salicylate
  • Colchicine; Probenecid
  • Dichlorphenamide
  • Dienogest; Estradiol valerate
  • Digoxin
  • Drospirenone
  • Drospirenone; Estradiol
  • Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Levomefolate
  • Elagolix; Estradiol; Norethindrone acetate
  • Erythromycin; Sulfisoxazole
  • Estradiol; Levonorgestrel
  • Estradiol; Norethindrone
  • Estradiol; Norgestimate
  • Ethacrynic Acid
  • Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Desogestrel
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Ethynodiol Diacetate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Etonogestrel
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Ferrous bisglycinate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Folic Acid; Levomefolate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norelgestromin
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate; Ferrous fumarate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone; Ferrous fumarate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestimate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestrel
  • Furosemide
  • Indomethacin
  • Lesinurad; Allopurinol
  • Leuprolide; Norethindrone
  • Levonorgestrel
  • Magnesium Salicylate
  • Mestranol; Norethindrone
  • Methotrexate
  • Mycophenolate
  • Norethindrone
  • Norgestrel
  • Oral Contraceptives
  • Probenecid
  • Pyrimethamine; Sulfadoxine
  • Salsalate
  • Segesterone Acetate; Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Sodium Benzoate; Sodium Phenylacetate
  • Sodium picosulfate; Magnesium oxide; Anhydrous citric acid
  • Sulfadiazine
  • Sulfamethoxazole; Trimethoprim, SMX-TMP, Cotrimoxazole
  • Sulfasalazine
  • Sulfisoxazole
  • Sulfonamides
  • Tetracyclines
  • Typhoid Vaccine
  • Warfarin
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