Symptoms of fungal infections of the bones and joints
How do fungal infections of the bones and joints present clinically? What are the risk factors?
Osteomyelitis is the most common fungal musculoskeletal syndrome. Septic arthritis may arise from direct extension from bone or, less frequently, from inoculation or hematogenous spread. Generally, the monoarthritis is indolent with delays in diagnosis of months to years. Acute arthritis is unusual except in Candida and Blastomyces infections. Risk factors are similar to osteoarticular TB: environmental exposure, HIV and other immunodeficiencies, and immunosuppressive medications including biologic therapy like anti-TNFα agents (especially infliximab).