How does metabolic syndrome lead to kidney stones?
Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of abnormalities (hypertension, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and increased waist size) associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Recent studies also have shown an increased risk of uric acid stone formation. Patients with metabolic syndrome have a lower urine pH because they excrete more of their daily net acid production as titratable acid and less as ammonium, with the net effect being a lower urine pH.
The lower ammonia production by the proximal tubule results from insulin resistance. As might be expected, patients with diabetes appear to develop uric acid stones more frequently than nondiabetics.