From what approach should PCN be performed?
A PCN tract should pass through the least vascular region of the kidney to minimize bleeding complications. Renal calyces are arranged in anterior and posterior rows. Between these two rows, in the interpolar kidney, is a relatively avascular plane of renal parenchyma called Brödel’s line. This plane usually lies at 30 to 45 degrees, and the PCN tract should be made along this line. (Interestingly, Max Brödel, who described the avascular area of the kidney named after him, is also known as one of the major medical illustrators at the beginning of the twentieth century, and he improved the role of medical illustration in the medical literature.)