Alternative means other than fluoroscopy for visualizing the collection system for PCN

What are the alternative means other than fluoroscopy for visualizing the collection system for PCN?

Ultrasonography (US) can be used, which eliminates the need for contrast material opacification of the collecting system. US can also be used to ensure that adjacent organs do not lie along a proposed nephrostomy tract. If the collecting system is not dilated, however, it may be difficult to visualize it with US. Computed tomography (CT) is another option, particularly if the kidney is in an anomalous position.

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