Causes of benign and malignant biliary obstruction
- • Common benign causes include bile duct calculi, benign strictures, pancreatitis, and sclerosing cholangitis
- • Less common benign causes include Caroli’s disease, Mirizzi syndrome, and parasitic infection.
- • Common malignant causes include pancreatic cancer, metastatic disease, and cholangiocarcinoma.
- • Less common malignant causes include gallbladder carcinoma and ampullary tumors.