Yellow Fever Vaccine Live

What is Yellow Fever Vaccine Live

Yellow fever vaccine live is a subcutaneously administered preparation of live, attenuated yellow fever virus.

Yellow fever, so named because some patients get jaundice, is found primarily in the tropical and subtropical areas of Africa and South America. The disease is caused by a flavivirus that is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

Routine vaccination is not recommended in the US; however, in response to a re-emergence of epidemics of the disease over the last 20 years, vaccination is recommended for travelers to endemic or epidemic areas, including both jungle and urban areas.

Vaccination is also recommended for microbiology laboratory workers who may be exposed to the yellow fever virus or concentrated preparations of the yellow fever vaccine strain.

Theiler and Smith at the Rockefeller Foundation Laboratories in New York first developed an attenuated yellow fever virus (known as 17D) by 176 serial passages of the Asibi strain in mouse-embryo and chicken-tissue cultures in 1937.

The current vaccine substrains have all been prepared from this 17D strain and are designated as 17DD and 17D-204. Eight countries manufacture these vaccines under the direction of the WHO. In the US, Sanofi Pasteur produces YF-Vax (strain 17D-204). 

Indications & Dosage

  • yellow fever prophylaxis

Side Effects

  1. anaphylactoid reactions
  2. aphasia
  3. asthenia
  4. bronchospasm
  5. edema
  6. elevated hepatic enzymes
  7. erythema
  8. fever
  9. Guillain-Barre syndrome
  10. headache
  11. hepatic failure
  12. hyperbilirubinemia
  13. injection site reaction
  14. lymphopenia
  15. malaise
  16. myalgia
  17. paresis
  18. rash
  19. renal failure (unspecified)
  20. respiratory depression
  21. rhabdomyolysis
  22. seizures
  23. steatosis
  24. thrombocytopenia
  25. urticaria

Monitoring Parameters

  • laboratory monitoring not necessary

Contraindications

  • acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
  • agammaglobulinemia
  • breast-feeding
  • corticosteroid therapy
  • egg hypersensitivity
  • fever
  • geriatric
  • human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
  • hypogammaglobulinemia
  • immunosuppression
  • infants
  • intramuscular administration
  • intravenous administration
  • leukemia
  • lymphoma
  • myasthenia gravis
  • neonates
  • neoplastic disease
  • pregnancy
  • radiation therapy
  • severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)

Interactions

  • Abatacept
  • Adalimumab
  • Aldesleukin, IL-2
  • Alefacept
  • Alemtuzumab
  • Alkylating agents
  • Alpha interferons
  • Altretamine
  • Anakinra
  • Anthracyclines
  • Antimetabolites
  • Antithymocyte Globulin
  • Antitumor antibiotics
  • Axicabtagene Ciloleucel
  • Azathioprine
  • Baricitinib
  • Basiliximab
  • Belatacept
  • Belimumab
  • Bexarotene
  • Blinatumomab
  • Brodalumab
  • Busulfan
  • Canakinumab
  • Carmustine, BCNU
  • Certolizumab pegol
  • Chlorambucil
  • Cisplatin
  • Clofarabine
  • Cortisone
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Cyclosporine
  • Cytarabine, ARA-C
  • Dacarbazine, DTIC
  • Daclizumab
  • Deflazacort
  • Dexamethasone
  • Docetaxel
  • Dupilumab
  • Efalizumab
  • Emapalumab
  • Estramustine
  • Etanercept
  • Everolimus
  • Fingolimod
  • Floxuridine
  • Fludrocortisone
  • Fluorouracil, 5-FU
  • Folate analogs
  • Golimumab
  • Guselkumab
  • Hydrocortisone
  • Ifosfamide
  • Imatinib
  • Infliximab
  • Interferon Gamma-1b
  • Ixabepilone
  • Ixekizumab
  • Leflunomide
  • Lenalidomide
  • Lomustine, CCNU
  • Mechlorethamine, Nitrogen Mustard
  • Melphalan
  • Methylprednisolone
  • Mitoxantrone
  • Muromonab-CD3
  • Mycophenolate
  • Natalizumab
  • Nelarabine
  • Nilotinib
  • Obinutuzumab
  • Ocrelizumab
  • Ofatumumab
  • Ozanimod
  • Paclitaxel
  • Prednisolone
  • Prednisone
  • Procarbazine
  • Purine analogs
  • Rilonacept
  • Risankizumab
  • Rituximab
  • Rituximab; Hyaluronidase
  • Sarilumab
  • Secukinumab
  • Siltuximab
  • Siponimod
  • Sirolimus
  • Streptozocin
  • Tacrolimus
  • Temozolomide
  • Temsirolimus
  • Teriflunomide
  • Thiotepa
  • Tildrakizumab
  • Tisagenlecleucel
  • Tocilizumab
  • Tofacitinib
  • Tositumomab
  • Triamcinolone
  • Ustekinumab
  • Vedolizumab
  • Venetoclax
  • Vinblastine
  • Vincristine
  • Vincristine Liposomal
  • Vinorelbine
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