Hydroxychloroquine

Hydroxychloroquine Brand Names- Plaquenil | Quineprox

What is Hydroxychloroquine

Hydroxychloroquine is an oral disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.

It also is used to prevent and treat malaria. Irreversible retinal damage has been observed with use, and postmarketing cases of life-threatening and fatal cardiomyopathy, including ventricular arrhythmias and torsade de pointes, have been reported.

Hydroxychloroquine was FDA-approved in 1955.

Indications

  1. coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
  2. discoid lupus erythematosus
  3. lupus nephritis
  4. malaria
  5. malaria prophylaxis
  6. Plasmodium falciparum
  7. Plasmodium malariae
  8. Plasmodium ovale
  9. Plasmodium vivax
  10. polymorphous light eruption
  11. rheumatoid arthritis
  12. severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)
  13. severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection
  14. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

Side Effects

  1. abdominal pain
  2. acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP)
  3. agranulocytosis
  4. alopecia
  5. anemia
  6. angioedema
  7. anorexia
  8. aplastic anemia
  9. ataxia
  10. AV block
  11. blurred vision
  12. bronchospasm
  13. bullous rash
  14. bundle-branch block
  15. cardiomyopathy
  16. corneal deposits
  17. corneal edema
  18. corneal opacification
  19. diarrhea
  20. dizziness
  21. Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS)
  22. dyskinesia
  23. dystonic reaction
  24. emotional lability
  25. erythema multiforme
  26. exfoliative dermatitis
  27. fatigue
  28. hair discoloration
  29. headache
  30. hearing loss
  31. heart failure
  32. hemolysis
  33. hepatic failure
  34. hypoglycemia
  35. irritability
  36. leukopenia
  37. macular degeneration
  38. myopathy
  39. nausea
  40. nightmares
  41. nystagmus
  42. photophobia
  43. photosensitivity
  44. porphyria
  45. pruritus
  46. psoriasis
  47. psychosis
  48. pulmonary hypertension
  49. QT prolongation
  50. rash
  51. retinal pigment changes
  52. retinopathy
  53. scotomata
  54. seizures
  55. skin discoloration
  56. Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  57. suicidal ideation
  58. thrombocytopenia
  59. tinnitus
  60. torsade de pointes
  61. toxic epidermal necrolysis
  62. tremor
  63. urticaria
  64. ventricular fibrillation
  65. ventricular tachycardia
  66. vertigo
  67. visual impairment
  68. vomiting
  69. weakness
  70. weight loss

Monitoring Parameters

  • blood glucose
  • CBC
  • ECG
  • glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity
  • ophthalmologic exam

Contraindications

  • accidental exposure
  • alcoholism
  • apheresis
  • Asian patients
  • AV block
  • bradycardia
  • breast-feeding
  • cardiomyopathy
  • celiac disease
  • children
  • diabetes mellitus
  • females
  • fever
  • G6PD deficiency
  • geriatric
  • GI disease
  • heart failure
  • hepatic disease
  • human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
  • hyperparathyroidism
  • hypocalcemia
  • hypoglycemia
  • hypokalemia
  • hypomagnesemia
  • hypothermia
  • hypothyroidism
  • infants
  • long QT syndrome
  • myocardial infarction
  • myopathy
  • neonates
  • neurological disease
  • ocular disease
  • pheochromocytoma
  • porphyria
  • pregnancy
  • psoriasis
  • QT prolongation
  • renal disease
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • sickle cell disease
  • sleep deprivation
  • stroke
  • systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  • visual disturbance

Interactions

  • Acarbose
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  • Acetohexamide
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  • Albiglutide
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