Chloroquine

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Chloroquine Brand Name– Aralen

What is Chloroquine

Chloroquine is a 4-aminoquinoline anti-protozoal agent indicated for the treatment and prophylaxis of susceptible malaria strains and for the treatment of extraintestinal amebiasis.

Chloroquine is not active against gametocytes and the exoerythrocytic forms including the hypnozoite stage of the Plasmodium parasites. Resistance to chloroquine is widespread.

Irreversible retinal damage has been observed with use, and postmarketing cases of life-threatening and fatal cardiomyopathy, including ventricular arrhythmias and torsade de pointes (TdP), have been reported.

Indications

  1. amebiasis
  2. coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
  3. discoid lupus erythematosus
  4. Entamoeba histolytica
  5. malaria
  6. malaria prophylaxis
  7. Plasmodium falciparum
  8. Plasmodium malariae
  9. Plasmodium ovale
  10. Plasmodium vivax
  11. severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)
  12. severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection

Side Effects

  1. abdominal pain
  2. acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP)
  3. agitation
  4. agranulocytosis
  5. alopecia
  6. anaphylactic shock
  7. anaphylactoid reactions
  8. angioedema
  9. anorexia
  10. anxiety
  11. aplastic anemia
  12. AV block
  13. blurred vision
  14. bundle-branch block
  15. cardiomyopathy
  16. confusion
  17. corneal deposits
  18. corneal opacification
  19. delirium
  20. depression
  21. diarrhea
  22. Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS)
  23. dyskinesia
  24. elevated hepatic enzymes
  25. erythema multiforme
  26. exfoliative dermatitis
  27. hair discoloration
  28. hallucinations
  29. headache
  30. hearing loss
  31. hemolysis
  32. hemolytic anemia
  33. hepatitis
  34. hypoglycemia
  35. hyporeflexia
  36. hypotension
  37. insomnia
  38. macular degeneration
  39. myasthenia
  40. myopathy
  41. nausea
  42. neutropenia
  43. night blindness
  44. pancytopenia
  45. photosensitivity
  46. pruritus
  47. psoriasis
  48. psychosis
  49. QT prolongation
  50. retinopathy
  51. scotomata
  52. seizures
  53. skin discoloration
  54. Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  55. suicidal ideation
  56. thrombocytopenia
  57. tinnitus
  58. torsade de pointes
  59. torticollis
  60. toxic epidermal necrolysis
  61. urticaria
  62. ventricular fibrillation
  63. ventricular tachycardia
  64. visual impairment
  65. vomiting
  66. weakness

Monitoring Parameters

  • blood glucose
  • CBC
  • ECG
  • glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity
  • ophthalmologic exam

Contraindications

  • accidental exposure
  • alcoholism
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • apheresis
  • Asian patients
  • AV block
  • bradycardia
  • breast-feeding
  • cardiomyopathy
  • celiac disease
  • children
  • chloroquine hypersensitivity
  • diabetes mellitus
  • Fabry disease
  • females
  • fever
  • G6PD deficiency
  • geriatric
  • hearing impairment
  • heart failure
  • hepatic disease
  • human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
  • hydroxychloroquine hypersensitivity
  • hyperparathyroidism
  • hypocalcemia
  • hypoglycemia
  • hypokalemia
  • hypomagnesemia
  • hypothermia
  • hypothyroidism
  • infants
  • infertility
  • long QT syndrome
  • myocardial infarction
  • neonates
  • neurological disease
  • ocular disease
  • pheochromocytoma
  • porphyria
  • pregnancy
  • psoriasis
  • QT prolongation
  • renal failure
  • renal impairment
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • seizure disorder
  • seizures
  • sickle cell disease
  • sleep deprivation
  • stroke
  • systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

Interactions

  • Acarbose
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  • Alfuzosin
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  • Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Trisilicate
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