Apraclonidine

Apraclonidine Brand Name– Iopidine

What is Apraclonidine

Apraclonidine, a relatively selective alpha2-adrenergic agonist related to clonidine, is an ophthalmic sympathomimetic agent.

The 1% solution is used to control or prevent postsurgical elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP).

Apraclonidine 0.5% is also used as a short-term adjunctive agent to reduce IOP in glaucoma patients receiving maximally tolerated medical therapy.

This drug was approved by the FDA in 1987.

Indications

  • glaucoma
  • increased intraocular pressure

For the prevention or treatment of postsurgical increased intraocular pressure following argon laser trabeculoplasty, argon laser iridotomy, or Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy

Side Effects

  1. abdominal pain
  2. asthenia
  3. blepharedema
  4. blepharitis
  5. blurred vision
  6. bradycardia
  7. chest pain (unspecified)
  8. conjunctivitis
  9. constipation
  10. contact dermatitis
  11. corneal erosion
  12. depression
  13. diarrhea
  14. dizziness
  15. drowsiness
  16. dysgeusia
  17. dyspnea
  18. fatigue
  19. foreign body sensation
  20. headache
  21. hyperemia
  22. insomnia
  23. irritability
  24. keratitis
  25. lacrimation
  26. libido decrease
  27. malaise
  28. myalgia
  29. mydriasis
  30. nasal dryness
  31. nausea
  32. ocular discharge
  33. ocular inflammation
  34. ocular irritation
  35. ocular pain
  36. ocular pruritus
  37. orthostatic hypotension
  38. palpitations
  39. paresthesias
  40. parosmia
  41. peripheral edema
  42. pharyngitis
  43. photophobia
  44. pruritus
  45. rhinitis
  46. tolerance
  47. vomiting
  48. xerophthalmia
  49. xerostomia

Monitoring Parameters

  • intraocular pressure

Contraindications

  • acute myocardial infarction
  • breast-feeding
  • cardiac disease
  • cerebrovascular disease
  • children
  • contact lenses
  • coronary artery disease
  • depression
  • driving or operating machinery
  • hepatic disease
  • hypertension
  • infants
  • MAOI therapy
  • neonates
  • pregnancy
  • Raynaud’s phenomenon
  • renal disease
  • renal failure
  • renal impairment
  • syncope
  • thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger’s disease)

Interactions

  • Acetaminophen; Butalbital
  • Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine
  • Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine
  • Acetaminophen; Codeine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Doxylamine
  • Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene
  • Acetaminophen; Diphenhydramine
  • Acetaminophen; Hydrocodone
  • Acetaminophen; Oxycodone
  • Acetaminophen; Propoxyphene
  • Alfentanil
  • Aliskiren
  • Aliskiren; Amlodipine
  • Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Aliskiren; Valsartan
  • Alprazolam
  • Amiloride
  • Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Amitriptyline; Chlordiazepoxide
  • Amlodipine
  • Amlodipine; Atorvastatin
  • Amlodipine; Benazepril
  • Amlodipine; Celecoxib
  • Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan
  • Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan
  • Amlodipine; Olmesartan
  • Amlodipine; Telmisartan
  • Amlodipine; Valsartan
  • Amobarbital
  • Angiotensin II receptor antagonists
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
  • Anxiolytics; Sedatives; and Hypnotics
  • Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone
  • Atenolol; Chlorthalidone
  • Atropine; Difenoxin
  • Atropine; Diphenoxylate
  • Atropine; Hyoscyamine; Phenobarbital; Scopolamine
  • Azilsartan
  • Azilsartan; Chlorthalidone
  • Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital
  • Belladonna; Opium
  • Benazepril
  • Benazepril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Beta-adrenergic blockers
  • Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Bosentan
  • Brompheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone
  • Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Bumetanide
  • Buspirone
  • Butabarbital
  • Calcium-channel blockers
  • Candesartan
  • Candesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Captopril
  • Captopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine
  • Carbetapentane; Pyrilamine
  • Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Cardiac glycosides
  • Central-acting adrenergic agents
  • Chloral Hydrate
  • Chlordiazepoxide
  • Chlordiazepoxide; Clidinium
  • Chlorothiazide
  • Chlorpheniramine; Codeine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone
  • Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpromazine
  • Chlorthalidone
  • Chlorthalidone; Clonidine
  • Clevidipine
  • Clonazepam
  • Clonidine
  • Clorazepate
  • Codeine
  • Codeine; Guaifenesin
  • Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine
  • Codeine; Promethazine
  • Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine
  • Dextromethorphan; Promethazine
  • Diazepam
  • Diazoxide
  • Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine
  • Diltiazem
  • Diphenhydramine
  • Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen
  • Diphenhydramine; Naproxen
  • Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine
  • Doxazosin
  • Doxylamine
  • Doxylamine; Pyridoxine
  • Droperidol
  • Enalapril, Enalaprilat
  • Enalapril; Felodipine
  • Enalapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Enflurane
  • Eplerenone
  • Epoprostenol
  • Eprosartan
  • Eprosartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Estazolam
  • Eszopiclone
  • Ethacrynic Acid
  • Ethanol
  • Etomidate
  • Felodipine
  • Fenoldopam
  • Fentanyl
  • Fluphenazine
  • Flurazepam
  • Fosinopril
  • Fosinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Fospropofol
  • Furosemide
  • General anesthetics
  • Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone
  • Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Guanabenz
  • Guanfacine
  • Halothane
  • Homatropine; Hydrocodone
  • Hydralazine
  • Hydralazine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Hydralazine; Isosorbide Dinitrate, ISDN
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Irbesartan
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Lisinopril
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Losartan
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Methyldopa
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Metoprolol
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Moexipril
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Propranolol
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Quinapril
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Spironolactone
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Telmisartan
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Triamterene
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan
  • Hydrocodone
  • Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen
  • Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate
  • Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine
  • Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Hydromorphone
  • Hydroxyzine
  • Ibuprofen; Oxycodone
  • Iloprost
  • Irbesartan
  • Isocarboxazid
  • Isoflurane
  • Isradipine
  • Ketamine
  • Levorphanol
  • Lisinopril
  • Loop diuretics
  • Lorazepam
  • Losartan
  • Mecamylamine
  • Mepenzolate
  • Meperidine
  • Meperidine; Promethazine
  • Mephobarbital
  • Meprobamate
  • Mesoridazine
  • Methadone
  • Methohexital
  • Methyclothiazide
  • Methyldopa
  • Metolazone
  • Midazolam
  • Minoxidil
  • Moexipril
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
  • Morphine
  • Morphine; Naltrexone
  • Nebivolol; Valsartan
  • Nicardipine
  • Nifedipine
  • Nimodipine
  • Nisoldipine
  • Nitroprusside
  • Olmesartan
  • Opiate Agonists
  • Oxazepam
  • Oxycodone
  • Oxymorphone
  • Pentobarbital
  • Perindopril
  • Perindopril; Amlodipine
  • Perphenazine
  • Perphenazine; Amitriptyline
  • Phenelzine
  • Phenobarbital
  • Phenothiazines
  • Phenoxybenzamine
  • Phenylephrine; Promethazine
  • Potassium-sparing diuretics
  • Prazosin
  • Prochlorperazine
  • Promethazine
  • Propofol
  • Propoxyphene
  • Quazepam
  • Quinapril
  • Ramelteon
  • Ramipril
  • Remifentanil
  • Reserpine
  • Sacubitril; Valsartan
  • Secobarbital
  • Selegiline
  • Sevoflurane
  • Sotalol
  • Spironolactone
  • Sufentanil
  • Telmisartan
  • Temazepam
  • Terazosin
  • Thiazide diuretics
  • Thiethylperazine
  • Thiopental
  • Thioridazine
  • Torsemide
  • Trandolapril
  • Trandolapril; Verapamil
  • Tranylcypromine
  • Treprostinil
  • Triamterene
  • Triazolam
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Trifluoperazine
  • Valsartan
  • Verapamil
  • Zaleplon
  • Zolpidem
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