Amyl Nitrite

What is Amyl Nitrite

Amyl nitrite is a volatile liquid that is administered via inhalation. Its vasodilatory activity makes it useful for the pharmacologic management of angina pectoris and as a diagnostic aid for cardiovascular function.

Amyl nitrite is also useful in the initial treatment of cyanide poisoning until intravenous sodium nitrite is available. Amyl nitrite is a component of the cyanide antidote kit.

Amyl nitrite was first used for its vasodepressor effects in 1857 to treat symptoms of severe angina.

When the FDA was instituted in 1938 amyl nitrite received approval. Today, because amyl nitrite is expensive; inconvenient; and often causes headaches, tachycardia, and orthostatic hypotension, it is rarely used to relieve angina.

Amyl nitrite inhalants are sometimes used illicitly to enhance sexual pleasure and produce euphoria, and abuse of the drug has been associated with severe toxicity. Street names for amyl nitrite inhalants include ‘Amy’ and ‘poppers.’

Indications

  • angina
  • cyanide toxicity

For the treatment of angina pectoris

Side Effects

  1. cyanosis
  2. diaphoresis
  3. dizziness
  4. fecal incontinence
  5. flushing
  6. headache
  7. hemolytic anemia
  8. methemoglobinemia
  9. nausea
  10. orthostatic hypotension
  11. palpitations
  12. peripheral vasodilation
  13. rash
  14. sinus tachycardia
  15. syncope
  16. urinary incontinence
  17. vomiting
  18. weakness

Monitoring Parameters

  • blood pressure
  • heart rate
  • methemoglobin

Contraindications

  • anemia
  • breast-feeding
  • cardiomyopathy
  • children
  • dehydration
  • geriatric
  • glaucoma
  • head trauma
  • hypotension
  • hypovolemia
  • increased intracranial pressure
  • infants
  • intracranial bleeding
  • methemoglobinemia
  • myocardial infarction
  • neonates
  • orthostatic hypotension
  • pregnancy
  • syncope

Interactions

  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene
  • Acetaminophen; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Pseudoephedrine
  • Acetazolamide
  • Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Alfuzosin
  • Alpha-blockers
  • Amphetamine
  • Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine
  • Angiotensin II receptor antagonists
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
  • Apomorphine
  • Articaine; Epinephrine
  • Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital
  • Benzocaine
  • Benzocaine; Butamben; Tetracaine
  • Benzphetamine
  • Beta-adrenergic blockers
  • Bosentan
  • Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine
  • Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Bupivacaine
  • Bupivacaine Liposomal
  • Bupivacaine; Lidocaine
  • Cabergoline
  • Caffeine; Ergotamine
  • Calcium-channel blockers
  • Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine
  • Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
  • Central-acting adrenergic agents
  • Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlophedianol; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Chloroprocaine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Cocaine
  • Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine
  • Dapsone
  • Desloratadine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Dexmethylphenidate
  • Dextroamphetamine
  • Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine
  • Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine
  • Diazoxide
  • Diethylpropion
  • Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine
  • Dihydroergotamine
  • Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine
  • Dobutamine
  • Dopamine
  • Ephedrine
  • Epinephrine
  • Eplerenone
  • Epoprostenol
  • Ergoloid Mesylates
  • Ergonovine
  • Ergot alkaloids
  • Ergotamine
  • Ethanol
  • Fenoldopam
  • Fexofenadine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Gallium Ga 68 Dotatate
  • Glimepiride; Rosiglitazone
  • Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine
  • Halothane
  • Hydralazine
  • Hydralazine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Hydralazine; Isosorbide Dinitrate, ISDN
  • Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine
  • Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine
  • Iloprost
  • Isoproterenol
  • Lidocaine
  • Lidocaine; Prilocaine
  • Lisdexamfetamine
  • Loop diuretics
  • Loratadine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Mannitol
  • Mecamylamine
  • Mepenzolate
  • Mepivacaine
  • Mepivacaine; Levonordefrin
  • Metformin; Rosiglitazone
  • Methamphetamine
  • Methazolamide
  • Methylergonovine
  • Methylphenidate
  • Methysergide
  • Midodrine
  • Minoxidil
  • Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine
  • Nesiritide, BNP
  • Nitroprusside
  • Norepinephrine
  • Paliperidone
  • Pemoline
  • Penicillin G Benzathine; Penicillin G Procaine
  • Penicillin G Procaine
  • Pergolide
  • Phendimetrazine
  • Phentermine
  • Phentermine; Topiramate
  • Phenylephrine
  • Phenylephrine; Promethazine
  • Phosphodiesterase inhibitors
  • Potassium-sparing diuretics
  • Prilocaine
  • Prilocaine; Epinephrine
  • Procaine
  • Pseudoephedrine
  • Racepinephrine
  • Reserpine
  • Riociguat
  • Ritodrine
  • Ropivacaine
  • Rosiglitazone
  • Sincalide
  • Sympathomimetics
  • Tetracaine
  • Thiazide diuretics
  • Treprostinil
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