Which physical modalities are available for management of musculoskeletal pain

Which physical modalities are available for management of musculoskeletal pain?

The main purpose of physical modalities is to decrease pain so that the patient can participate in therapeutic exercises. Modalities available include:

  • • Thermal agents.
    • Superficial moist or dry heat. Moist heat is delivered by hot packs, whirlpool, paraffin baths, or aqua therapy and dry heat is delivered by fluidotherapy.
    • Deep heat with ultrasound or diathermy.
    • Cryotherapy.
  • • Electrotherapy
    • Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS).
    • Iontophoresis.
  • • Traction.
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