When to anticipate respiratory failure?
Consider respiratory failure when there is:
- • An increased respiratory rate, particularly with signs of distress (e.g., increased respiratory effort including nasal flaring, retractions, seesaw breathing, or grunting)
- • An inadequate respiratory rate, effort, or chest excursion (e.g., diminished breath sounds or gasping), especially if mental status is depressed
- • Cyanosis with abnormal breathing despite supplementary oxygen
American Heart Association: 2010 Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Part 14: Pediatric Advanced Life Support. Circulation 2010;122(18):877.