What nonpharmacologic measures help to prevent and treat osteoporosis?
Adequate calcium intake (diet plus supplements): a
a Taking more than the stated amounts of calcium and vitamin D is not recommended. Higher amounts may be associated with more kidney stones as well as more vascular calcifications particularly in patients with renal insufficiency.
- 1000–1200 mg/day, premenopausal women and men aged 50 to 70 years.
- 1200–1500 mg/day, postmenopausal women and men aged ≥70 years.
- Adequate vitamin D intake: 800 to 1200 IU/day. a, b+ Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) are equivalent when taken on a chronic basis.
- Regular exercise (30 minute, 3–5 times/week): aerobic, strength, flexibility, and balance.
- Limitation of alcohol consumption to ≤2 drinks/day.
- Limitation of caffeine consumption to ≤2 servings/day.
- Smoking cessation.
- Fall prevention, avoid high impact/twisting motion, do not flop into a chair.