What infectious agents trigger Reactive Arthritis
|Urogenital||Chlamydia trachomatis a , Ureaplasma urealyticum b , Mycoplasma genitalium b|
|Enterogenic||Salmonella a typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. heidelberg, S. cholerae-suis|
|Shigella a flexneri, S. dysenteriae, S. sonnei|
|Yersinia a (especially O:3 and O:9), Y. pseudotuberculosis|
|Campylobacter a jejuni, C. Coli|
|Clostridium difficile b|
|Escherichia coli b , Diarrhogenic strains|
|Giardia lamblia b|
|Respiratory||Chlamydia pneumoniae b|
|Group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus b , c|
|Viral||Human immunodeficiency virus b , d|
|Multiple sources, case reports only e||Helicobacter pylori|
Note: In up to 40% of ReA patients, an infectious agent cannot be identified. Serologic tests especially for Chlamydia may identify a previous infection if cultures/PCR are negative.
a Common infections associated with ReA. Also, most common infections associated with HLA-B27-patients.
b Uncommon infections associated with ReA.
c Typically causes acute rheumatic fever, but has been described to cause ReA.
d ReA has occurred in the setting of HIV, but usually the virus is not directly associated and other pathogens may be implicated.
e Not full list but most prominent case reports.