What HLA is found in patients with celiac disease

What HLA is found in patients with celiac disease and how does it contribute to the development of the disease?

Celiac disease occurs as an autoimmune reaction to wheat gluten/gliadin by T and B lymphocytes in the gut of genetically predisposed individuals. It is a relatively common disease affecting 1:70 to 1:300, most often in individuals of Northern European ancestry. HLA-DQ2 and/or -DQ8 (usually in linkage with HLA-DR3 ) is seen in 99% of celiac disease patients compared with 40% of the normal population. Dietary gluten is partly digested by gastric enzymes to form a 33-amino acid peptide that is deaminated by tissue transglutaminase increasing its immunogenicity. The immunogenic gliadin peptide is then presented in the context of HLA-DQ2 or DQ8 to CD4+ T cells, resulting in interferon-γ release and inflammation, altered gut permeability, and villous atrophy. Only 66% have characteristic bowel symptoms, whereas others will present with arthritis, vitamin D or B12 deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, cerbellar disease, infertility, or peripheral neuropathy. It is more likely to occur in patients with other HLA-DR3- associated autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren’s, type I diabetes mellitus, autoimmune thyroid disease, or autoimmune liver disease.

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