Are there any risks of LDCT screening for lung cancer?
Yes, there is a high false-positive rate of LDCT screening, as a substantial number of LDCT screening scans are positive (i.e., noncalcified nodules ≥ 4 mm or other findings suspicious for lung cancer), requiring follow-up imaging or invasive tissue sampling, although 96% of detected lung nodules turn out to be benign. The NLST showed that ≈320 high-risk people must be screened to prevent 1 death from lung cancer. Fortunately, the risk of adverse events following LDCT screening is <2%. Research is ongoing in the search for laboratory biomarkers to improve the specificity of LDCT screening and reduce false-positive results.