Endoscopic cancer screening of the esophagus is primarily undertaken for what two types of esophageal cancers? What risk factors are associated with these two types of cancers?
• Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is the most common type of esophageal cancer in the United States; it is increasing in prevalence and is highly associated with BE, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and obesity.
• Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a less frequent cause of esophageal cancer in the United States. The risk factors for esophageal SCC include alcohol, tobacco smoking, achalasia, caustic injury, tylosis, prior or concurrent head and neck SCC, and Plummer-Vinson syndrome. A new review links infection with human papillomavirus to a threefold greater chance of developing esophageal SCC.