Reference frames in spinal navigation

What are different options for reference frames in spinal navigation?

  • • Spinous process clamp
  • • Head holder attachments (Mayfield skull clamps)
  • • Posterior superior iliac spine percutaneous pins
  • • Surgical mask–based system (skin-adhesive cutaneous frame)
  • • Pedicle screw clamps (for revision cases with screws in place or for second intraoperative navigation scans)
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