Mycobacterial and Fungal Joint and Bone Diseases
1. Osteoarticular tuberculosis (TB) accounts for 10% of all cases of extrapulmonary disease.
2. The majority of patients with osteoarticular TB will have a normal chest radiograph.
3. Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) musculoskeletal infections most commonly present as a hand tenosynovitis or vertebral osteomyelitis.
4. Treatment of NTM infections caused by Mycobacterium abscessus, M. chelonae, and M. fortuitum require surgical debridement given extensive drug resistance.
5. Candidal osteomyelitis may present weeks to months after an episode of candidemia and requires a high index of suspicion for diagnosis.