Major causes of medullary nephrocalcinosis

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What are the major causes of medullary nephrocalcinosis?

Medullary nephrocalcinosis is secondary to deposition of calcification in the renal medulla and is more common than cortical nephrocalcinosis. Major causes include hyperparathyroidism, medullary sponge kidney, distal renal tubular acidosis (type 1 RTA), and oxalosis. The medullary calcifications can erode into the collecting system, causing patients to present with recurrent and intractable urinary stones.

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