Long term risks of vitamin and mineral deficiencies

What are the vitamin and mineral deficiencies and potential long term risks?

  • Vitamin B 12 , folate, and iron deficiencies occur in up to 40% of patients without lifetime supplementation.

Hypocalcaemia with or without vitamin D deficiency and resulting osteoporosis can also occur without lifelong supplementation. The deficiencies are a result of bypassing most of the stomach, all of the duodenum, and the proximal jejunum.


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