How do SCD and sickle cell trait differ with respect to common kidney manifestations?
Kidney manifestations are generally more common and severe in SCD compared with those seen in sickle cell trait.
However, one notable exception is the increased frequency of aggressive renal medullary carcinoma seen among patients with sickle cell trait.
Renal medullary carcinoma occurs almost exclusively in patients with sickle cell trait (not SCD). Renal medullary carcinoma typically presents in young patients (20 to 30 years old) as an aggressive metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. Median survival is 3 months following diagnosis.
Affected individuals may present with hematuria, flank pain, and/or abdominal mass.