Factors commonly contribute to neural foraminal narrowing and spinal canal stenosis

Other than degenerative disc pathology, what other factors commonly contribute to neural foraminal narrowing and spinal canal stenosis?

Facet joint osteoarthritis, facet joint synovial cysts, uncovertebral joint hypertrophy, ligamentum flavum hypertrophy, epidural lipomatosis, and spondylolisthesis can all contribute to spinal canal and neural foraminal narrowing.

The uncovertebral joints are unique to the C3 through C7 vertebrae of the cervical spine and project superiorly from the posterolateral aspects of the vertebral bodies, helping to maintain anteroposterior alignment.

Some patients are born with a narrow spinal canal (often due to pedicles that are short in the anteroposterior dimension).

In such patients, a lesser amount of spinal degenerative pathology is necessary to result in spinal canal stenosis 

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