Extraabdominal causes of referred abdominal pain

What are the common extraabdominal causes of referred abdominal pain?

Pain referred to the abdomen can be confusing.

• Thoracic: pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax, myocardial infarction or ischemia, esophageal spasm, or perforation

• Neurogenic: radicular pain (spinal cord compression from tumor, abscess, compression, or varicella zoster infection), tabes dorsalis

• Metabolic: uremia, porphyria, acute adrenal insufficiency

• Hematologic: sickle cell anemia, hemolytic anemia, Henoch-Schönlein purpura

• Toxins: insect bites (scorpion bite–induced pancreatitis), lead poisoning

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