What are some extra abdominal causes of abdominal pain?
Pain originating at sites distant from the abdomen can manifest as abdominal pain. In processes such as lower lobe pneumonia, afferent nerves from the parietal pleura share central pathways with those that originate from the abdominal wall. Similarly, scrotal pain may be referred to the abdomen. Remember to always perform a testicular examination on all males with abdominal pain! Other illnesses that are associated with abdominal pain include streptococcal pharyngitis, diabetes mellitus, testicular disease, sickle cell disease with vaso-occlusive crisis, lead toxicity, and porphyria. Physical examination may identify one of these diseases as the cause of abdominal pain.
Marin JR, Alpern ER: Abdominal pain in children. Emerg Med Clin North Am 2011;29:401-428.