Main types of diseases associated with increased Antiphospholipid Antibodies production
Increased aPL ab production is frequently associated with chronic immune stimulation. The primary conditions can be remembered by the mnemonic MAIN:
- M —Medications: most commonly phenothiazines (chlorpromazine), procainamide, quinidine, hydralazine, phenytoin, α-interferon, interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors, others.
- A —Autoimmune diseases: SLE (40%–50%), rheumatoid arthritis, dermatomyositis, Sjögren’s syndrome, systemic sclerosis, others.
- I —Infectious diseases: acute infections (bacteria, viral, especially herpes), chronic infections (hepatitis C, HIV). Usually transient IgM aCL abs without clot risk.
- N —Neoplasms: lymphoma most commonly.