What diagnostic tests are useful for the detection of acute and chronic pyelonephritis in children?
Renal cortical scintigraphy, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), and renal US are used to detect acute and chronic pyelonephritis in children. Pyelonephritis may be difficult to diagnose accurately, especially in infants and young children who cannot give a history. It may be difficult to distinguish between uncomplicated UTI and pyelonephritis (with or without subsequent complications such as renal abscess) on the basis of physical examination, history, and laboratory studies. Imaging plays an important role in the workup of children with known or suspected UTI.